Napoleon Bonaparte Background: born in 1769 to lesser nobles in Corsica, • French artillery officer at first • favored the REV and a fiery Jacobin, during Thermidorian Reaction his defense of the new regime won him a command in Italy
By 1795, French arms/diplomacy shattered the 1st Coalition • 1797 NB returns to Paris a hero & to confront France’s remaining enemy – GB. • Attacked British interests through the eastern Mediterranean • NB overran Egypt, but overall the invasion was a failure. • Admiral Horatio Nelson destroyed the French fleet. Napoleon returned to FR • Invasion of Egypt alarmed Russia who had own ambitions in the Near East and the Second Coalition was formed-Russians, Austrians, and Ottomans joined Britain to form this coalition that defeated the French in Italy and Switzerland • Impact of invasion: marked the 1st major west European assault on the Ottomans occurring after Russian under Catherine the Great had taken control of Crimea, significantly it was British not Ottoman forces that drove the FR out and the OE came to understand that it must reform if it was to rest other
Abbe Sieyes-author of What is the Third Estate, wanted an executive body independent of the whims of electoral politics based on the principle of “confidence from below, power from above.” • This change required a coup d’etatw/ military support • News of France’s misfortunes had reached Napoleon in Egypt, he left his army and returned to France to popular acclaim joining Sieyes and ensuring the success of the coup
The Consulate (1799-1804) • Establishing Consulate ended the revolution in France • Leading elements of the TE had achieved most of their goals and the peasants were satisfied with destruction of oppressive feudal privileges • Bonaparte seemed just the person to give them security • When he submitted his constitution to the voters, it was overwhelmingly passed
NB justified public’s confidence by making peace with France’s enemies • Treaty of Amiens-brought peace w/ GB and Fr. and peace to Europe in 1802
Ruthless suppression of opposition: established a highly centralized administration in which prefects responsible to the gov. managed all departments, employed secret police, stamped out the royalist rebellion and made the rule of Paris effective in Brittany and Vendee for the 1st time in years
The Concordat of 1801 NB wanted to heal the divisions within the R.C.C. that had developed after the confiscation of Church property and the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. But, NB’s clear intent was to use the clergy to prop up his regime.
Concordat of 1801 Catholicism was declared the religion of the majority of Frenchmen. Papal acceptance of church lands lost during the Revolution. Bishops subservient to the regime. Eventually, Pope Pius VII renounced the Concordat, and Napoleon had him brought to France and placed under house arrest.
1802 plebiscite –made NB consul for life Codified French law Civil Code of 1804 Safeguarded all forms of property, secured French society against all internal challenges, Privileges based on birth remained abolished, Employment based on merit, Worker organizations still forbidden,
Napoleonic Code 1804 Fathers granted extensive control over children and husbands over wives, property distributed among all children, males and females, divorce remained more difficult for women than for men This ended the patchwork of laws in France that existed before NB’s reign.
Napoleon’s Empire • Overview-B/t his coronation as emperor and final defeat at Waterloo, Napoleon conquered most of Europe. • The wars put an end to the Old Regime and forced the eastern Euro states to reorganize themselves to resist NB. • NB’s advance unleashed the powerful force of nationalism and mobilization of the French nation.
Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon & the Empress Josephine,” 1806 by David
Establishing an Empire Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon & the Empress Josephine,” 1806 by David
Conquering an Empire • Peace of Amiens was merely a truce, Napoleon’s ambitions shattered any hope it might last • Sent army to restore the rebellious colony of Haiti to French rule • Aroused British fears he was planning a new French empire in America
British Naval Superiority • Battle of Trafalgar-naval victory by the British admiral Horatio Nelson who destroyed the combined French and Spanish fleets putting an end to all French hope of invading GB and guaranteed British control of the sea for the rest of the war
Napoleonic Victories in Central Europe • 1805 – Defeated Austrian/Russian army at Austerlitz • Reorganized western German states into Confederation of the Rhine • Berlin Decrees-forbade allies from importing British good • Treaty of Tilsit reduced Prussia to half its previous size, Prussia openly and Russia secretly became allies of Napoleon
Continental System • GOAL to isolate Britain and promote Napoleon’s mastery over Europe. • Berlin Decrees (1806) British ships were not allowed in European ports
European Response to Napoleon • Wherever Napoleon ruled, the NC was imposed and hereditary social distinctions were abolished as well as feudal privileges • Guilds and local oligarchies that had been dominant for centuries were dissolved/deprived of their power
German Nationalism – 2 phases • 1st-nationalistic writers emphasized unique admirable qualities of German culture • 2nd-German intellectuals began to urge resistance to Napoleon, critical of German princes who ruled selfishly and who submitted to Napoleon • Result of German nationalism: Germans sought to solve internal political problems by attempting to establish a unified German state like the example of France
Wars of Liberation - Spain “The Spanish Ulcer” NB invaded Spain in order to get to Portugal He proclaimed his brother, Joseph, to be the new king of Spain after a Madrid revolt. He stationed over 100,000 Fr troops in Madrid. May 2, 1808 [Dos de Mayo] the Spanish rose up in rebellion. Fr troops fired on the crowd in Madrid the next day [Tres de Mayo].
Invasion of Spain • Napoleon now poured 500,00 troops into Spain over the next few years. • But, the Fr generals still had trouble subduing the Spanish population. • The British viewed this uprising as an opportunity to weaken Napoleon. • They moved an army into Portugal to protect that country and to aid the Spanish guerillas. • After 5 long years of savage fighting, Fr troops were finally pushed back across the Pyrennes Mountains out of Spain
Napoleon in His Study By Jacques Louis David
Invasion of Russia • At end of 1810 Russia withdrew from the Continental System. Russians wanted help against the Ottomans but NB would not provide it. • NB was determined to punish Russia • An army of 600K men was raised. Russians resort to scorched-earth • FR Army could not live off the country and supply lines couldn’t be maintained over the expanse of Russia • Terrible weather, shortages of supplies, and courage of Russian rear guard eroded the morale of Napoleon’s army
Napoleon’s Troops at the Gates of Moscow • September 14, 1812 Napoleon reached Moscow, but the city had largely been abandoned. The Russians had set fire to the city.
Congress of Vienna • Convened in 1814 • Major nations (Quadruple Alliance) • Russia – Alexander I • Prussia – • Austria – Klemons von Metternich* • Britain - Lord Castlereigh • Also France - Charles Tallyrand
Congress of Vienna • Principles of the Congress of Vienna • 1) “Legitimacy” meant returning to power the ruling families deposed by more than two decades of revolutionary warfare. • 2) “Compensation” meant territorially rewarding those states which had made considerable sacrifices to defeat Napoleon. • “Balance of Power” arranged the map of Europe so that never again could one state upset the international order and cause a general war.
Napoleon’s Defeat at Waterloo(June 18, 1815) Prussian General Blücher DukeofWellington