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IQ #1. How much are Hall Passes worth? What do I do if I am tardy? Where do I go if I want to take a sample test? What do I need to do to get full participation points? How many days do I have to turn in late work?. F.Y.I. Al Gore EcoSpot TV commercial contest

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IQ #1

How much are Hall Passes worth?

What do I do if I am tardy?

Where do I go if I want to take a sample test?

What do I need to do to get full participation points?

How many days do I have to turn in late work?

f y i

Al Gore EcoSpot TV commercial contest

Deadline Sept. 12th

environmental issues their causes and sustainability
Environmental Issues, Their Causes, and Sustainability

G. Tyler Miller’s

Living in the Environment

13th Edition

Chapter 1

Dr. Richard Clements

Chattanooga State Technical Community College

Modified by Charlotte Kirkpatrick 2005

key concepts
Key Concepts
  • Growth and Sustainability
  • Resources and Resource Use
  • Pollution
  • Causes of Environmental Problems
living more sustainably
Living More Sustainably
  • Ecology: Studies relationships

between living organisms and their


  • Environmental Science: interdisciplinary

science that helps us to understand how the earth

works, how we affect the earth, and how to deal with

environmental problems.

Refer to Spotlight on p. 3


Sustainable Society: satisfies the basic needs of its people for food, clean water, clean air, and shelter into the indefinite future without depleting natural resources.

Living sustainably: Living off the earth’s natural income and not depleting the earth’s natural capital.

solar and earth capital
Solar and Earth Capital

Know this diagram you will reference it several times this year (p. 92)

warm up 2
Warm Up #2

1.What does it mean to live sustainably?

2. Are we living off of earth capital or income?

3. Is the human population still growing exponentially?

4. With a growth rate of 2.5% what is the doubling time?

population growth
Population Growth

Fig. 1-2 p. 4

  • Linear Growth
  • ExponentialGrowth
  • Doubling Time/Rule of 70

Doubling time (years) = 70/% growth rate

Ex. 70/1.28=54.7 years

See spotlight p. 5

world population
World Population

Fig. 1-1 p. 2

economic growth indicators
Economic Growth Indicators
  • Gross National Product (GNP)

[also referred to as Gross National Income (GNI)]

  • Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
  • Gross World Product (GWP)
  • Per Capita GNP

(also referred as per capita GNI)

gnp vs gdp

GNP(GNI): Market value in current $ of all goods and services produced by an economy, inside and outside that country, for final use during a year.

GDP: Same as GNP except it only includes goods and services produced within a country

purchasing power parity
Purchasing Power Parity

PPP:Purchasing Power Parity is another economic measure that more accurately compares standards among countries.

GNI PPP: The market value of a countries GNI in terms of what it would buy in the U.S.

per capita gni gnp
Per Capita GNI (GNP)

Per capita GNI: total GNI divided by the total population at midyear.

Provides the average slice of the economic pie per person.

Per capita GNI PPP: the GNI PPP divided by the total population midyear. Again a better way to compare people’s econmic welfare among countries.

economic development
Economic Development
  • Economic Development: Improvement of living standards by economic growth
  • Developed Countries: Highly industrialized with a high GNI PPP (over $10,750 per year in most cases)
  • Developing Countries: some middle income, moderately developed countries with GNI PPP of $2701- $10750. Others are low income with GNI PPP of <$2701/year

[ See fig. 1-3 p. 5]

developed vs developing countries
Developed vs. Developing Countries

Developed Countries :

total population of 1.2 billion people

have 85% of world’s wealth and income

use 88% of worlds resources and

generate 75% of its pollution and waste

Developing Countries:

total population of 5 billion people

have 15% world’s wealth and income

use 12% of its resources

generate 25% of its pollution and waste

warm up 3
Warm Up #3

What is the difference between GNP and GDP?

Why is per capita GNP a better economic measure than GNP alone?

What is the impact seen on the world by Developed Countries vs. Developing Countries.

In your opinion, is globalization a good thing?


Globalization: global social, economic, and environmental change leading to increasingly integrated world.

indicators of globalization
Indicators of Globalization


Increase in global economy

Increase in international trade of goods and services

Increase in the number of transnational corporations

operating in 3 or more countries

Information and Communication

Increase innumber of people with internet access

(1 in 11 world wide as of 2002)

indicators of globalization cont
Indicators of Globalization (cont.)

Environmental Effects

increase in the number of infectious organisms transported across international borders

increase in pollutants transferred around the globe leading to widespread ocean pollution, ozone depletion, and climate change

  • Perpetual

On a human timescale

is continuously renewed

  • Renewable: (potentially renewable)

Replenished on a human

time scale if not used up

faster than replaced

  • Non-renewable:

On a human timescale

they are not renewable,

fixed amounts

Fig. 1-6 p. 9

renewable resources
Renewable Resources
  • Sustainable Yield: the highest rate at

Which a renewable resource can be used indefinitely

Without reducing its available supply

  • Environmental Degradation: When we

exceed a resource’s natural replacement rate, the

available supply begins to shrink

  • Tragedy of the Commons: overuse of

common property or free-access resources

Refer to Connections, p. 11

non renewable resources
Non-Renewable Resources

Economic Depletion

Fig. 1-7 p. 10

  • Energy Resources
  • Metallic Resources
  • Non-MetallicResources
extending nonrenewable supplies
Extending nonrenewable supplies

Reuse:Using a product in the same form over and over again

  • Recycle: collecting and reprocessing a


Ecological Footprint: amount of land needed to produce the resources needed by an average person in a country

Fig. 1-8 p. 10

  • What is pollution?

Any addition to air, water, soil, or food that threatens

the health, survival, or activities of humans or other living


  • Effects of Pollution

Disruption of life-support systems for humans and

other species.

Damage to wildlife, human health and property.

Nuisances such as noise and unpleasant smells,

tastes, and sights.

sources of pollution
Sources of Pollution

Point: Where pollutants come from single, identifiable sources

  • Nonpoint: Where pollutants come from

dispersed and difficult to identify sources

Which would be easier to control and clean

up after?

dealing with pollution
Dealing With Pollution
  • Prevention (Input Control)

Reduces or eliminates the production of the pollutants

  • Cleanup (Output Control)

Cleaning up of pollutants after they have been produced.

3 problems with cleanup:

1. It is only a bandage

2. Often removes pollutant from one part of the

environment and cause pollution in another.

3. Too costly

environmental and resource problems
Environmental and Resource Problems

Fig. 1-10 p. 12

  • Major Problems(See Fig. 1-9 p. 12)
  • Five Root Causes
environmental impact
Environmental Impact

Fig. 1-11 p. 13

environmental worldviews
Environmental Worldviews
  • Planetary Management:

Humans manage the earth mostly for their needs

We are in charge of nature

There is always more

All economic growth is good

Success is determined on how well we understand,

manage and control the earth’slife support systems for

our benefit

  • Environmental Wisdom:

Complete opposition of planetary management

environmentally sustainable economic development
Environmentally-Sustainable Economic Development









Decision making in a

sustainable society


decision making

Fig. 1-13 p. 17