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CS 495 : Senior Seminar Pr. Richard Steflik Group 4 October 28 th , 2004. PRIVACY AND CIVIL LIBERTIES. Privacy and Civil Liberties Featured Topics and Speakers:. Ethical and Legal Basis for Privacy Protection by Joshua Shapiro
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by Shawn Spielberg
- It is a fundamental right guaranteed to you
- It is an ever growing concern
- The more you know about it, the more security measures you can take
- One Man
- One Vision
- One Norbert Weiner
- Electronic Computer Privacy Act (ECPA)
- Communications Decency Act (CDA)
- Up to date software patches
- Voice your opinion to elected officials
Worried Privacy Protect 1 of 2
Worried Privacy Protect 2 of 2
Technological laws 1 of 1
Technological laws 1 of 1
- Advertisements ex: Flowers
- Jobs: Pyramid scams
- Politics ex: Bush/Kerry, War
- Health ex: Energy Pills, Fat Loss
- Adult Content
- Get Rich Quick
- Built in spam protection such as Web Based services such as
- Third party software ex: Norton, CoffeCup, etc…
Using Technology 1 of 7
HistoryKill 2002 Popup killer
“The #1 Privacy Tool for the Internet!”
Using Technology 2 of 7
CoffeeCup Spam Blocker 3.0 – Shareware
Using Technology 3 of 7
Using Technology 4 of 7
Using Technology 5 of 7
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Technological Strategies for Privacy Protection Using Technology to create privacy and protection.
- The translation of data into a secret code. Encryption is the most effective way to achieve data security. To read an encrypted file, you must have access to a secret key or password that enables you to decrypt it. Unencrypted data is called plain text; encrypted data is referred to as cipher text.
- There are two main types of encryption: asymmetric encryption (also called public-key encryption) and symmetric encryption.
- Credit card #, social security, birthdates, confidential documents, medical records, financial statements.
Using Technology 6 of 7
Basic Encryption Process
Using Technology 7 of 7
Where 1 of 1
I - Cultures are Different from One to Another
II - How Cultural Differences affect our Privacy and Civil Liberties
1679: “Habeas Corpus” or Bill of Rights (Great Britain)
1776:U.S. Declaration of Independence
1789: “Declaration of the right of Man” (France)
Middle and Late 19th Century: Succession of Human Rights Movements
1964:Civil rights Act
1988:Civil Liberties Act
Various Other Laws, regarding Privacy and Civil Liberties were established within many other cultures
- Conceptions of Privacy and Civil Liberties
- Special physical and Structural traits
= Study of one’s perception and use of space
Different conceptions of personal space
Difference in amount of trust we put in others to handle personal info
Difference in how we perceive what information should be publicly available
Data gotten from: Table1 – Aggregate data from the study for US, UK and EU audiences.
Sarah Gordon. “Privacy: A Study of Attitudes and Behaviors in US, UK and EU Information Security Professional”. http://securityresponse.symantec.com/avcenter/reference/privacy.attitudes.behaviors.pdf
- Physical Appearance
- Most importantly, in this case, Names
Critical Information: titles, gender, marital status,…
Variations: nicknames, alternate spellings, …
A Most Practical Example:
Security Devices - fabrication and usage encouraged by the Government in order to fight against terrorism
- “Watch lists”
- Surveillance Cameras
with Face Recognition Systems
- Control of exchange of information over the internet
I know, By the Law of Commutativity, they are both equivalent…
So, I’ll just pick any one of them!!!
If only somebody could tell me what this person’s name really is !
DataBase GuyPrivacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural ImplicationsFact:
Security Devices are Made and Used within an Unawareness of Cultural Differences
Problems during the Devices’ Input and Output
- Human Error:
While writing a name down on a piece of paper or
While entering a name on the database
- Quality of Input Device
Example: Camera’s lighting – too dark or too light
During the Output:
- False Positives
Example: Soundex, Face Recognition, …
= Technique developed in the 1990s and that the science of understanding and automating the correct handling of personal names continues to rely on.
Ignores common personal name variations based on cultures, language, spelling variations and diminutives
Fails to return matches that exists in databases.
returns a bulk of unrelated false positives
Proven Ineffective time and again
= One of the tools used in Biometrics to capture “signatures” of faces on high-resolution cameras and compare them with mug shots in Police Databases
Ineffective and error-ridden
Accurate only 54% of the time
Case: Anthony D. Romero
“ Antonio Romero is what my mother calls me. Antonio Romero is also how I am known to many of my friends and family members. Unfortunately, the name Antonio Romero also Appears on a U.S. Treasury Department list titled ‘Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons.’ The government provides only name, some known aliases and a date of birth for Antonio Romero. No Further Attempt is made at delineating one Antonio Romero from the next.”
- Anthony D. Romero, “You, Too, Could Be A Suspected Terrorist”, American Civil Liberty Union. http://www.zulunation.com/newletter_info.html
Impossibility to distinguish an honest citizen from a terrorist
Increase risk of working with people related to criminal and terrorist activities
Usage of Empirically driven knowledge about names
- Reduction of False Positives
- Ensure an accurate evaluation of all name types
- Usage of statistics:
Determines the probable culture and gender of a name, variant spellings, and the recognition of matches of names within a database, considering all character, cultural and phonetic variations possible.
Domination of computing systems by English Speaking Cultures
- Back to Human Rights Movements???
“minority” linguistic cultures feeling annihilated by English speaking ones
- Notion of lingua franca
Denise Oram and Mike Headon,
North East West Wales University, Wrexham, UK
One Language for the “Computing World”
Universalization of all cultures:
Arising of the “Computing culture”