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CS 495 : Senior Seminar Pr. Richard Steflik Group 4 October 28 th , 2004. PRIVACY AND CIVIL LIBERTIES. Privacy and Civil Liberties Featured Topics and Speakers:. Ethical and Legal Basis for Privacy Protection by Joshua Shapiro
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CS 495: Senior SeminarPr. Richard SteflikGroup 4October 28th, 2004 PRIVACY AND CIVIL LIBERTIES
Privacy and Civil LibertiesFeatured Topics and Speakers: • Ethical and Legal Basis for Privacy Protection by Joshua Shapiro • Privacy Implications of Massive Database systems by Shawn Spielberg • Technological strategies for Privacy Protection by Joshua Spindel • Freedom of Expression in Cyberspace by Jingbo Tan • International Implications by Marc Van Gelder • Intercultural Implications by Larisse Voufo • Privacy in the Workplace by Brian Wolf
Privacy and Civil LibertiesEthical and Legal Basis for Privacy ProtectionJoshua Shapiro
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Ethical and Legal Basis for Privacy Protection
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Ethical and Legal Basis for Privacy ProtectionWhy should you be concerned about privacy protection? - It is a fundamental right guaranteed to you - It is an ever growing concern - The more you know about it, the more security measures you can take
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Ethical and Legal Basis for Privacy ProtectionWhere did it all begin? - One Man - One Vision - One Norbert Weiner
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Ethical and Legal Basis for Privacy ProtectionModern privacy issues: - Cookies - Spyware - Carnivore
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Ethical and Legal Basis for Privacy ProtectionLaws: - Electronic Computer Privacy Act (ECPA) - Communications Decency Act (CDA)
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Ethical and Legal Basis for Privacy ProtectionPeople fighting for you: - EFF - ACLU
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Ethical and Legal Basis for Privacy ProtectionWhat can you, the users do? - Encryption - Up to date software patches - Voice your opinion to elected officials
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Ethical and Legal Basis for Privacy ProtectionThank you!
Privacy and Civil Liberties Privacy Implications of Massive Database SystemsShawn Spielberg
Privacy and Civil Liberties Technological strategies for Privacy ProtectionJoshua Spindel
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Technological Strategies for Privacy ProtectionDiscussion • Why are people worried about privacy protection? • Technological laws and legislations. • Using Technology to create privacy and protection. • Where do we go from here?
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Technological Strategies for Privacy Protection Why are people worried about privacy protection? (1) • Privacy and the protection of Internet users information from third-party transactions and organized crime has become a reality that we can no longer avoid and no longer be passive about. • The Office of the Federal Privacy Commissioner states “that privacy is a major issue for net users” (http://www.privacy.gov.au/internet/web/index__print.html). • Consumers don’t want to conform to practices that will help protect themselves. Worried Privacy Protect 1 of 2
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Technological Strategies for Privacy Protection Why are people worried about privacy protection? (2) • Ventana Resarch, a company that researches technological privacy issues believes “conditions are ripe for an electronic privacy revolution”(http://www.intelligentcrm.com/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=18201265). • Information being exploited: spam, misuse of social security numbers, disclosure of medical information, employment history, purchase behavior, and more. Worried Privacy Protect 2 of 2
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Technological Strategies for Privacy Protection Technological Laws and legislations(1) • Because of events like September 11th, 2001 and terrorist movements throughout the world, government invasion of civil liberties seem to be on the rise. • New Homeland Security • combat cyber threats, the bill includes $67 million -- a $2.1 million increase over last year -- to expand activities at Homeland Security's cyber-security division. Technological laws 1 of 1
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Technological Strategies for Privacy Protection Technological Laws and legislations(2) • New USA Patriot Act of 2001 effects internet • enhanced taping/wiring, snooping, packet sniffing • What does this mean to us? • This could lead to “national identification system and Federal agency rights to access both public and commercial databases and intercept electronic communications for data mining projects”. (http://www.intelligentcrm.com/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=18201265) Technological laws 1 of 1
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Technological Strategies for Privacy Protection Using Technology to create privacy and protection. • Pop-ups - Advertisements ex: Flowers - Jobs: Pyramid scams - Politics ex: Bush/Kerry, War - Health ex: Energy Pills, Fat Loss - Adult Content - Get Rich Quick • E-mail Spam - Built in spam protection such as Web Based services such as • http://mail.yahoo.com/ • http://gmail.com/ - Third party software ex: Norton, CoffeCup, etc… Using Technology 1 of 7
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Technological Strategies for Privacy Protection HistoryKill 2002 Popup killer “The #1 Privacy Tool for the Internet!” Using Technology 2 of 7
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Technological Strategies for Privacy Protection CoffeeCup Spam Blocker 3.0 – Shareware Using Technology 3 of 7
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Technological Strategies for Privacy Protection Using Technology to create privacy and protection. • Firewall • A system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network. • Firewalls can be implemented in both hardware and software, or a combination of both. • All messages entering or leaving the intranet pass through the firewall, which examines each message and blocks those that do not meet the specified security criteria. • Proxy Server • Intercepts all messages entering and leaving the network. The proxy server effectively hides the true network addresses. Using Technology 4 of 7
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Technological Strategies for Privacy Protection Firewall Using Technology 5 of 7
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Technological Strategies for Privacy Protection Using Technology to create privacy and protection. • Let’s talk about Encryption - The translation of data into a secret code. Encryption is the most effective way to achieve data security. To read an encrypted file, you must have access to a secret key or password that enables you to decrypt it. Unencrypted data is called plain text; encrypted data is referred to as cipher text. - There are two main types of encryption: asymmetric encryption (also called public-key encryption) and symmetric encryption. • Why use encryption ? - Credit card #, social security, birthdates, confidential documents, medical records, financial statements. Using Technology 6 of 7
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Technological Strategies for Privacy Protection Basic Encryption Process Using Technology 7 of 7
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Technological Strategies for Privacy Protection Where do we go from here? • The passing of more legislative laws protecting citizens. • Advancement of Third-party software and the continued support for its purpose. • Better education about internet privacy and protection. Ex: Government websites, free information packets for keeping yourself safe and secure while online. Where 1 of 1
Privacy and Civil Liberties Freedom of Expression in CyberspaceJingbo Tan
Privacy and Civil Liberties Intercultural ImplicationsLarisse Voufo
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural Implications I - Cultures are Different from One to Another II - How Cultural Differences affect our Privacy and Civil Liberties
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural ImplicationsBrief tour to History: 1679: “Habeas Corpus” or Bill of Rights (Great Britain) 1776:U.S. Declaration of Independence 1789: “Declaration of the right of Man” (France) Middle and Late 19th Century: Succession of Human Rights Movements 1964:Civil rights Act 1974:Privacy Act 1988:Civil Liberties Act Various Other Laws, regarding Privacy and Civil Liberties were established within many other cultures
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural ImplicationsCultural Factors: - Conceptions of Privacy and Civil Liberties Proxemics - Special physical and Structural traits
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural ImplicationsProxemics: = Study of one’s perception and use of space Different conceptions of personal space Difference in amount of trust we put in others to handle personal info Difference in how we perceive what information should be publicly available
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural ImplicationsGraph: Data gotten from: Table1 – Aggregate data from the study for US, UK and EU audiences. Sarah Gordon. “Privacy: A Study of Attitudes and Behaviors in US, UK and EU Information Security Professional”. http://securityresponse.symantec.com/avcenter/reference/privacy.attitudes.behaviors.pdf
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural ImplicationsSpecial Traits: - Physical Appearance - Language - Tradition - Ideology - Most importantly, in this case, Names NamingConvention Name Structures Critical Information: titles, gender, marital status,… Variations: nicknames, alternate spellings, … Alphabet
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural ImplicationsEffects of Cultural Factors on the Society: A Most Practical Example: Security Devices - fabrication and usage encouraged by the Government in order to fight against terrorism - “Watch lists” - Surveillance Cameras with Face Recognition Systems - Control of exchange of information over the internet
“Nice Guy” or “Guy Nice” ??? I know, By the Law of Commutativity, they are both equivalent… So, I’ll just pick any one of them!!! If only somebody could tell me what this person’s name really is ! DataBase Guy Privacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural ImplicationsFact: Security Devices are Made and Used within an Unawareness of Cultural Differences Problems during the Devices’ Input and Output
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural ImplicationsDuring the Input: - Human Error: While writing a name down on a piece of paper or While entering a name on the database - Quality of Input Device Example: Camera’s lighting – too dark or too light During the Output: - False Positives Example: Soundex, Face Recognition, …
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural ImplicationsSoundex: = Technique developed in the 1990s and that the science of understanding and automating the correct handling of personal names continues to rely on. Key-based algorithm Ignores common personal name variations based on cultures, language, spelling variations and diminutives Fails to return matches that exists in databases. returns a bulk of unrelated false positives Proven Ineffective time and again
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural ImplicationsFace Recognition Systems: = One of the tools used in Biometrics to capture “signatures” of faces on high-resolution cameras and compare them with mug shots in Police Databases Limited Reliability Ineffective and error-ridden Accurate only 54% of the time
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural ImplicationsImpact in Society: Case: Anthony D. Romero “ Antonio Romero is what my mother calls me. Antonio Romero is also how I am known to many of my friends and family members. Unfortunately, the name Antonio Romero also Appears on a U.S. Treasury Department list titled ‘Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons.’ The government provides only name, some known aliases and a date of birth for Antonio Romero. No Further Attempt is made at delineating one Antonio Romero from the next.” - Anthony D. Romero, “You, Too, Could Be A Suspected Terrorist”, American Civil Liberty Union. http://www.zulunation.com/newletter_info.html Impossibility to distinguish an honest citizen from a terrorist Increase risk of working with people related to criminal and terrorist activities
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural ImplicationsSolution: Need of Cultural Awareness Usage of Empirically driven knowledge about names Culturally efficient: - Reduction of False Positives - Ensure an accurate evaluation of all name types - Usage of statistics: Determines the probable culture and gender of a name, variant spellings, and the recognition of matches of names within a database, considering all character, cultural and phonetic variations possible.
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural ImplicationsAnother Problem: Domination of computing systems by English Speaking Cultures
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural ImplicationsFuture: Two Alternatives - Back to Human Rights Movements??? “minority” linguistic cultures feeling annihilated by English speaking ones - Notion of lingua franca Denise Oram and Mike Headon, North East West Wales University, Wrexham, UK One Language for the “Computing World” Universalization of all cultures: Arising of the “Computing culture”
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Intercultural Implications --Thank You!!!
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Privacy in the Workplace Privacy in the Workplace • Government Legislation • Employer vs. Employee • Psychological Effect • The Future
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Privacy in the Workplace Government Legislation • Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Actof 1968 • Put regulations on the use of tapping into telephone conversations • Electronic Communication Privacy Act (ECPA) in 1986 • extended coverage from just telephones to electronic communications, which includes computers
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Privacy in the Workplace Government Legislation Cont’d • ECPA Cont’d • provided criminal and civil penalties for unauthorized interception of private, electronic communication • provided stricter guidelines for obtaining the authorization to use a wiretap or pen register • Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA Patriot Act) - 2001
Privacy and Civil Liberties: Privacy in the Workplace Employer Vs. Employee • Numerous court cases involving E-mail messages over company systems • Bourke vs. Nissan (1993 – California) • Smyth vs. The Pillsbury Company (1996 – Pennsylvania) • McLaren vs. Microsoft (1999 – Texas) • Cases above ruled all in favor of the employer • “no reasonable expectation of privacy in their E-mail messages “ • “does not recognize any right of privacy in the contents of electronic mail systems and storage that are provided to employees by the employer as part of the employment relationship”