ch 2 anatomy and physiology of body systems l.
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Ch. 2-Anatomy and Physiology of Body Systems. 2.1 Anatomical Terminology. The terms of p osi tion include Anatomical position —The victim is standing erect, arms down to the sides , palms facing forward. “Right” and “left” refer to the victim’s right and left.

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Ch. 2-Anatomy and Physiology of Body Systems

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2 1 anatomical terminology
2.1 Anatomical Terminology

The terms of position include

  • Anatomical position —The victim is standing erect, arms down to the sides, palms facing forward. “Right” and “left” refer to the victim’s right and left.
  • Supine position —The victim is lying face up (on the back)
  • Prone position —The victim is lying face down (on the stomach)
  • Lateral recumbent position —The victim is lying on the left or right side with the lower arm in front of the body, head dependent with no excess pressure on the chest. This is also known as the recovery, or coma, position.
  • Modified HAINES recovery position – if the victim has a suspected injury to the spine, is unresponsive, and has a possible airway compromise due to a large amount of blood, vomit or secretions, place the victim in a modified HAINES recovery position. Extend the victim’s arm above the head, logroll him onto his side so his head rests on the extended arm. Bend the knees to stabilize his body.



Supine Position

Right lateral recumbent position (recovery/coma position)

Left lateral recumbent position (recovery/coma position)

Prone Position


Modified HAINES position

terms of direction and location
Superior—above, or higher than a point of reference (e.g., The knee is superior to the ankle.)

Inferior—below, or lower than a point of reference (e.g., The wrist is inferior to the elbow.)

Anterior—toward the front

Posterior—toward the back

Medial—toward the midline or center of the body

Lateral—to the right or left of the midline; away from the midline

Superficial—near the surface

Deep—remote from the surface



Terms of Direction and Location


progress check

1. A victim lying on his or her back is in the ____________ position. (supine/prone/lateral)

2. A victim lying on her or his stomach is in the ____________ position. (supine/prone/lateral)

3. ____________ means above a point of reference.


4. ____________ means below a point of reference.


5. A wound near the surface is a ____________ wound.



2 2 the body s framework
2.2 The Body’s Framework
  • Skull
  • Spinal Column
  • Thorax
  • Pelvis
  • Lower Extremities
  • Upper Extremities
  • Joint Movements


the muscular system
The Muscular System

1. Skeletal muscle, or voluntary muscle, is under

a person’s conscious control.

2. Smooth muscle, or involuntary muscle, is muscle

over which a person has little or no conscious control.

3. Cardiac muscle forms the walls of the heart and

is made up of a cellular mesh.


articulate- To fit into each other

fracture- A break in the bone

skeletal (voluntary) muscle- Muscle that is under direct voluntary control of the brain

smooth muscle- The muscles found in the walls of the internal organs and blood vessels, generally not under voluntary control

involuntary muscle- Smooth muscle over which a person has no voluntary or conscious control

cardiac muscle- The muscle that makes up the heart



progress check10

1. The largest bone in the body is the __________. (tibia/humerus/femur)

2. Dislocation will occur at _________________.

(muscle attachments/joints/tendons)

3. Deliberate acts, such as walking and talking, depend on ____________ muscle. (skeletal/smooth/cardiac)

4. The movement of the intestines depends on ____________ muscle. (skeletal/smooth/cardiac)


the respiratory system
The Respiratory System
  • ventilation The mechanical process of moving (breathing) air into and out of the lungs
  • inhalation The act of breathing in (inspiration), or the drawing of air or other gases into the lungs
  • inspiration The act of breathing in (inhalation)


the digestive system
The Digestive System


  • Ingest and carry food
  • Digest food
  • Absorb nutrients
  • Eliminate wastes


the endocrine system
The Endocrine System
  • endocrine glands The ductless glands that regulate the body by secreting hormones


progress check15

1. The circulatory system has two major fluid transportation

systems: the cardiovascular and the ____________.


2. The mechanical process of moving air into and out of the lungs is called ____________. (inspiration/ventilation/expiration)

3. The urinary system filters and ____________ body wastes. (breaks down/metabolizes/eliminates)

4. Endocrine glands, which have no ducts, secrete ____________ directly into the bloodstream.



2 4 the nerves and skin
2.4 The Nerves and Skin

The nervous system

  • Enables the person to be aware of the environment
  • Enables the person to react to the environment
  • Coordinates responses of the body to stimuli
  • Keeps body systems working together


nervous system
Nervous System
  • central nervous system The part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and the spinal cord
  • peripheral nervous system Structures of the nervous system (especially nerve endings) that lie outside the brain and spinal cord

Functional divisions:

  • voluntary nervous system is responsible for voluntary movements throughout the body
  • autonomic nervous system influences the involuntary function of muscles, glands and organs.
        • sympathetic nervous system
        • parasympathetic nervous system


the skin
The Skin
  • Protects internal organs from injury
  • Prevents dehydration
  • Protects against invasion by microorganisms
  • Regulates body temperature
  • Aids in elimination of water and various salts
  • Acts as the receptor organ for touch, pain, heat, and cold

Epidermis- the outermost layer

Dermis- the inner layer, contains a vast

network of blood vessels


body cavities
Body Cavities
  • cranial cavity —contains the brain
  • spinal cavity —contains the spinal cord
  • thoracic cavity —contains the heart, trachea, lungs, large vessels, and esophagus
  • pericardial cavity —the tough fibrous covering that contains the heart
  • abdominal cavity —contains the liver, spleen, gallbladder, small and large intestine, pancreas, appendix, and stomach
  • pelvic cavity —contains the reproductive organs, urinary bladder, urethra, rectum


progress check20

1. The nervous system has two main functions: communication and ____________. (sensation/control/reaction)

2. The brain and spinal cord make up the ____________.

(autonomic nervous system/central nervous system/voluntary nervous system)

3. The peripheral nervous system is nerves located outside the ____________. (brain/spinal cord/brain and spinal cord)

4. The “fight-or-flight” syndrome is regulated by the ____________.

(parasympathetic nervous system/sympathetic nervous system/ central nervous system)

5. The outer layer of the skin is called the ____________. (epidermis/dermis/subcutaneous)

6. The cavity that contains the urinary bladder is the ____________. (abdominal/thoracic/pelvic)