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    Slide 1:ARCH2108Animals, Plants and People

    Slide 2:The family Canidae

    Slide 3:The genus Canisabout 7 species including:

    Slide 4:Species of Canis often hybridize in the wild

    Slide 5:Could the dog be of hybrid origin? Konrad Lorenz proposed that some breeds are predominately derived from the Gray Wolf, others from the Golden Jackal. “Wolf breeds” would be those exhibiting one-person fidelity, “jackal breeds” more promiscuous in their affections. He later changed his opinion under the weight of archaeozoological evidence.

    Slide 6:Distribution of Gray Wolf,Canis lupus

    Slide 7:Subspecies of Gray Wolves: whence the dog?

    Slide 8:Juliet Clutton-Brock’s model:dog breeds primarily from Indian wolf, but with input from local subspecies

    Slide 9:Vilà et al. (1997): two (of four) dog mtDNA lineages are as deep as those among wolves WOLVES: Saudi Arabia, Spain, China WOLVES: Saudi Arabia, Iran, China, Mexico? WOLVES: Saudi Arabia, India, Russia WOLVES: Saudi Arabia, Israel, Afghanistan, S.E.Europe, Poland, Spain WOLVES: Scandinavia WOLVES: N.America WOLVES: Romania, Greece, Russia

    Slide 10:Savolainen et al. (2002)

    Slide 12:Structure of a wolf pack Each pack has a dominant pair who – Patrol boundaries Settle disputes Control pack movements Do all the breeding Hierarchy maintained by movements of tail, ears, mouth and body, and by vocalisations. Subdominant females more aggressive than males.

    Slide 13:Group size Northern wolf packs gather in groups up to 30 in winter to hunt large prey such as moose; in spring and summer, break up into basic packs (4-10) to hunt small prey (and to breed) Southern wolves remain in basic packs.

    Slide 14:Territoriality Scent marks placed along paths on conspicuous landmarks Borders marked very intensively Other pack members often “endorse” scent marks by dominants Howling marks territory, and is a cohesion mechanism within the pack Territory size 60-400km2 (up to 12,800 km2 in one Alaskan study)

    Slide 15:Hunting Northern wolves: hunting is a very social activity, preceded by bonding ceremonies (tail-wagging, whining, mutual face-licking) Kill efficiency is low: for moose, 8%; for smaller deer 25-63% according to snow conditions Young prey more vulnerable in spring and summer, older animals in autumn and winter Sex ratio of kills, males: females - 2½:1 Southern wolves kill gazelles, sheep and goats, hares; commonly hunt singly

    Slide 16:Helper system Subordinate members of pack are offspring of previous years; may delay dispersal till second or third year of life A helper may take part in the hunt, or stay with pups while other pack members are away On returning from a hunt, all pack members – helpers as well as dominant pair – regurgitate meat for the pups

    Slide 17:Wolf pups playing

    Slide 18:Breeding season At breeding time, much chorus howling, muzzling, fur sniffing, increase in play - - and increase in aggression, which may result in change of ranking Aggression begins in friendly interactions, escalates when challenger bites harder than usual Real fights are silent Loser runs away, often chased by all pack members

    Slide 19:Breeding Wolves breed late winter or early spring Dogs breed twice a year Mating tie lasting 10-30 minutes Gestation 63 days 1-4 or more per litter (some dog breeds very prolific) Eyes open 14 days Social responses well developed 6 weeks Fully mature 9-12 months

    Slide 20:Wolves and dogs Wolves, dingoes and working dogs have narrow shoulders, elbows turn inwards, hindfeet placed in tracks of forefeet (most dogs place hindfeet outside tracks of forefeet) Wolf and dingo tails low-slung, sickle-shaped; many dogs curly-tailed Dogs’ jaws shortened (often uneven), teeth crowded, muzzle relatively broad Dogs have a “stop” (a sudden drop at root of nose) because of enlarged frontal sinuses

    Slide 21:Wolves and dogs, contd… Earlier maturation (6-9 months) Two breeding seasons per year All males mark Barking enhanced Hunting sequence (track - stalk – kill – retrieve) has been disrupted Underfur lost in most, but overdeveloped (and guard hairs lost) in poodles Development of “theory of mind” as far as humans are concerned

    Slide 23:Dingo

    Slide 24:Early colonial descriptions of New South Wales mention dingo only as an Aboriginal camp dog

    Slide 25:When did dingoes arrive in Australia? Earliest finds: Madura Cave, Nullarbor - 3450 ± 95 B.P. Wombah, NSW - 3200 B.P. Fromm’s Landing, SA - 3000 B.P. They were never present in Tasmania or Kangaroo Island

    Slide 27:Dingo Usually roam solitary Group howling at breeding time (April-May) Make breeding dens Helper system as in wolves Only mother appears to bring food One helper remains near den Mother regurgitates water for pups Food mainly rabbits, but kangaroos, sheep sometimes hunted; scavenge

    Slide 28:Dingo-like dogs in nearby regions

    Slide 29:Thai dingoes?

    Slide 31:Brain size reduction in dogs

    Slide 32:Modern breeds selected for intelligence (poodle, German Shepherd) have increased brain size compared with primitive dogs (Swiss Neolithic Lake dwellings)

    Slide 33:- or New Guinea Singing Dogs

    Slide 34:- or Batak dogs (Sumatra)

    Slide 35:Earliest dogs?(short jaw, small carnassial, crowded teeth) Oberkassel, Germany 14 ka Kebara, Israel 24-14 ka Kebara, Mallaha (Natufian) 12 ka Palegawra, Iraq 12 ka Seamer Carr, England 9.94 ka Fell’s Cave, Chile 8.5-6.5 ka Tocibara, Japan 8 ka

    Slide 36:Domestic dogs are used for - Companionship Draft (Inuit sledges; Plains travois) Food (Africa, Mexico, China) Hair for blankets (Andes, Maori) Warmth (Australia, Mexico) Hunting Guarding settlements and stock Controlling stock animals Following scent trails Racing

    Slide 37:Sense of smell An individual human’s trail followed even when criss-crossed by others (only identical twins smell the same) Only two seconds of hand contact needed Olfactory area of dog contains 14x as many cells as human But they are fallible as trackers; part of cues comes from compressed earth and vegetation

    Slide 38:Allometry in dog skulls

    Slide 39:Some breeds are grossly deformed

    Slide 40:Origin of breeds A short-legged scent-hound known from Egyptian XII dynasty An Amratian bowl (Egypt, 4th mill. B.C.) depicts 4 sight-hounds (saluki?) on a leash Guard dog (mastiff) known from Carthage Two presumed breeds, a large one and a small one, known from Maglemose (Germany, 8000-6500 B.C.)

    Slide 41:Egyptian greyhoundBeni Hassan, XII Dynasty (1900 B.C.)

    Slide 42:Hare, Brown, Williamson & Tomasello (2002)Experiments on ability of dogs to follow social cues from humans Experimenter reached toward, gazed at, and marked a baited container. 9/11 dogs, but only 2/11 chimpanzees, used the social cue correctly Experimenter indicated baited container by (1) Gaze-point-tap, (2) Gaze-point, (3) Point, (4) No cue (control) All of 7 wolves performed at chance levels; all of 7 dogs performed above chance level on GPT, 5 on GP, 4 on P, none on Control. No effect of learning.

    Slide 43:Hare et al. (2002) contd. Experimenter hid food in the presence of dogs and wolves, who were required to find it after delay (nonsocial memory task). 4/5 dogs and 4/5 wolves performed above chance. (A control experiment showed no effect of olfaction). 32 puppies (9 to 26 weeks) tested in Gaze-Point and Gaze experiments. No effect of family- vs. litter-rearing No effect of learning No effect of age GP more effective than G

    Slide 44:Primitive breeds

    Slide 45:And finally…

    Slide 46:Charles Hamilton Smith (1839): Several of the species [of Dusicyon] can be sufficiently tamed to accompany their masters to hunt in the forest without however being able to undergo much fatigue; for when they find the sport not to their liking, they return home to await the return of the sportsmen…

    Slide 47:…In domesticity they are excessive thieves, and go to prowl in the forest… The native Indians who have domestic dogs of European origin invariably use the Spanish term perro, and greatly promote the increase of the breed in preference to their own, which they consider to be derived entirely, or with a cross, from the Aguaras of the woods…

    Slide 48:…We find, from late information, that within the last 35 years the indigenous dogs of the Indians have been gradually replaced by the domestic European, and that now it is difficult to find any even in the more remote parts of the interior. When we were in the country [around 1810], this was not the case.

    Slide 49:Legacy of culpeo domestication? Until about 1880 a “wolf” inhabited the Falkland Islands (Malvinas) No indigenous people are known there There are no other indigenous mammals It had white muzzle and tail-tip like a dingo, enlarged frontal sinuses, and wide muzzle

    Slide 50:Falklands “wolf”,Dusicyon australis