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The effect of gender environment on Social Physique Anxiety in 7 th grade females. Steven Prewitt, M.S., James C. Hannon, PhD., Tim Brusseau, PhD, & Maria Newton, PhD. Introduction. Title IX (1972) Coed Physical education Unforeseen issues Participation Self-presentation.

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The effect of gender environment on Social Physique Anxiety in 7 th grade females


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the effect of gender environment on social physique anxiety in 7 th grade females

The effect of gender environment on Social Physique Anxiety in 7th grade females

Steven Prewitt, M.S., James C. Hannon, PhD.,

Tim Brusseau, PhD, & Maria Newton, PhD

introduction
Introduction
  • Title IX (1972)
  • Coed Physical education
  • Unforeseen issues
  • Participation
    • Self-presentation

(Hannon & Williams, 2008; Kruisselbrink, Dodge, Swanburg, & McLeod, 2004; Jackson et al., 2013; Whitehead & Biddle, 2008)

self presentation in coed pe
Self-Presentation in Coed PE
  • Social Physique Anxiety
    • Perception of others’ opinion of our body
    • “Feel on display”
    • in coed settings

(Davison, Werder, Trost, Baker, & Birch, 2007Hart, Leary, & Rejeski, 1989; Jackson, et al., 2013; James, 2000)

significance
Significance
  • Limited literature
  • Few studies; mostly qualitative
  • None with purposed activity
purpose
Purpose

The purpose of this pilot study was to examine changes in SPA of adolescent females in single gender and coed physical education classes during a circuit training unit.

Hypothesis - Girls within a single gender environment will demonstrate a significant decrease in SPA scores compared to their counterparts in a coed class.

participants
Participants
  • 42 7th grade females from a local Jr. High School
    • 1 class of single gender (n=20)
    • 1 class of coed (n=22)
instrument
Instrument
  • Social Physique Anxiety Scale
    • Five point Likert-type Scale
      • (1= not at all, 5= extremely)
  • Recommended for adolescents (Smith, 2004)
    • Highly reliable
      • Test-retest (r=0.89)
      • Internal consistency (α = 0.87)

(Martin, Rejeski, Leary, McAuley, & Bane, 1997)

protocol
Protocol
  • Week 1 – Pretest
  • Weeks 2 - 4 – Intervention
    • 2 classes for 3 weeks (6 sessions)
      • 8 stations
      • 45 seconds/15 seconds
      • Repeated cycle 4 times
  • Week 5 – Post test
statistical analysis
Statistical Analysis
  • 2 x 2 (group x time) repeated measures ANOVA
  • Significance set at 0.05
results
Results

* F(1,41)=6.582, p=0.014 ** Λ=0.895, F(1, 39)=4.56, p=0.039

discussion
Discussion
  • SPA changes SG ( 9.75%) vs. Coed ( 8.3%)
  • Results did not support original hypothesis
  • Trend supports original concept
  • Possible explanation
    • Differing effects of SPA
limitations
Limitations
  • Length of intervention
  • Small sample

(Scott et al, 2009)

conclusion
Conclusion
  • Purpose was to examine SPA changes
  • Current study
    • SPA following single gender experience
  • Application
    • Traditional PE is coed
    • Gender separate activities
  • Fills gap in literature
questions

Questions?

Thank You!

references
References
  • Cheung, C.Y.W., & Ng, G.Y.F. (2003). An eight-week exercise programme improves physical fitness of sedentary female adolescents. Phyisotherapy, 89(4), 249-255.
  • Cockburn, C., & Clarke, G. (2002). “Everybody’s looking at you!”: Girls negotiating the “femininity deficit” they occur in physical education. Women’s Studies International Forum, 25(6), 651- 665.
  • Davison, K.K., Werder, J.L., Trost, S.G., Baker, B.L., & Birch, L.L. (2007). Why are early maturing girls less active? Links between pubertal development, psychological well-being, and physical activity among girls at ages 11 and 13. Social Science & Medicine, 64, 2391-2404.
  • Di Brezzo, R., Glave, A.P., Gray, M., & Lirgg, C.D. (2012). Comparison of a PE4LIFE curriculum to a traditional physical education curriculum. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 12(3), 245-252.
  • Eaton, D. K., Kann, L., Kinchen, S., Shanklin, S., Flint, K. H., Hawkins, J., ... & Wechsler, H. (2012). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries. Volume 61, Number 4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  • Faigenbaum, A.D., Kraemer, W.J., Blimkie, C.J., Jeffreys, I., Micheli, L.J., Nitka, M., & Rowland, T.W. (2009). Youth resistance training: Updated position statement paper from the National Strength and Conditioning Association. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(5), S60-S79.
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  • Jackson, L., Cumming, S. P., Drenowatz, C., Standage, M., Sherar, L. B., & Malina, R. M. (2013). Biological Maturation and Physical Activity in Adolescent British Females: The Roles of Physical Self-Concept and Perceived Parental Support. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14, 447-454.
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cont.
  • Kruisselbrink, L.D., Dodge, A.M., Swanburg, S.L., & MacLeod, A.L. (2004). Influence of same-sex and mixed-sex exercise settings on the social physique anxiety and exercise intentions of males and females. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 26, 616-622.
  • Martin, K.A., Rejeski, W.J., Leary, M.R., McAuley, E., & Bane, S. (1997). Is the social physique anxiety scale really multidimensional? Conceptual and statistical arguments for a unidimensional model. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 19, 359-367.
  • McKenzie, T.L., Prochaska, J.J., Sallis, J.R, & LaMaster, K.J. (2004). Coeducational and single sex physical education in middle schools: Impact on physical activity. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 75, 446-449.
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