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Tempeh. Mold-fermented soy bean products originated from Indonesia Mycelia mass holds the soybeans together (cake) Inexpensive source for dietary protein (19%) 15 g/day/person in Indonesia Contain vitamin B 12 “Vegetable meat” Flavor Bland, mushroom-like before cooking nutty flavorful

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Tempeh


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tempeh
Tempeh
  • Mold-fermented soy bean products originated from Indonesia
  • Mycelia mass holds the soybeans together (cake)
  • Inexpensive source for dietary protein (19%)
  • 15 g/day/person in Indonesia
  • Contain vitamin B12
  • “Vegetable meat”
  • Flavor
    • Bland, mushroom-like before cookingnutty flavorful
    • Maillard reaction
microbiology
Microbiology
  • Endogenous flora
    • Lb. casei and other LAB, enterococci, staphylococci, streptococci, bacilli, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, and other coliforms; yeasts such as Pichia, Saccharomyces, Candida
    • Soaking period sucrose, stachyose, raffinose diffuse out, hydrolyze to release glucose and fructose
    • Acid produced by LAB further select for acid resistance ones
      • streptococci, enterococci, lactobacilli
    • Necessary to control pathogens
    • Low pH can also be achieved by adding organic acids
tempeh cultures
Tempeh cultures
  • Rhizopus oligosporus
    • Inoculation level: 107-108 spores (~1g/kg of beans)
    • Inoculation type
      • Pure spores
      • Backslop material consisting of a dried tempeh culture
      • “usar”-dried and dense spore crop by inoculating wild Rhizopus spores onto the surface of leaves of Hibiscus plant, incubate 2-3 days
  • Wild culture may also contain other species
    • R. oryzae, R. stolonifer, R. microsporus var. chinensis
tempeh biochemistry
Tempeh biochemistry
  • R. oligosporus responsible for causing major biochemical changes
  • Lipids and proteins serve as substrates for fungi-excreted lipases and proteinases
  • 1/3 of lipid and ¼ of potein degraded during fermentation
    • Lipid hydrolysis: mono- and diglycerides, free fatty acids, some free glycerol
      • Most free FA oxideized, so 10% decease in total dry matter in finished prod.
    • 10% of the released a.a. and peptides oxidized
      • Soluble N% increase
    • pH increases (to above 7.0)
  • Polysaccharide-hydrolyzing moderate
tempeh nutrition and safety
Tempeh nutrition and safety
  • Concentration of the major macronutrients decreases due to enzymatic hydrolysis
    • Tempeh more digestible (but not protein efficiency)
  • Decrease in undesirable soy oligosaccharides (stachyose and raffinose-causing flatulnence)
  • Increase in vitamin content
    • B12, B2, B6 biotin, pantothenic acid, folic acid increased, by non-starter
    • B1 decreased
tempeh nutrition and safety7
Tempeh nutrition and safety
  • Decrease in anti-nutritional factors by soaking and enzymatic degradation
    • Trypsin inhibitor (interfere with digestion
    • Tannins (reduce protein quality)
    • Phytic acid (reduce mineral adsorption)
    • Hemagglutenins (cause blood to form clumps)
    • Goitrogens (cause metabolic disturbances)
  • No mycotoxin
tempeh spoilage and defects
Tempeh spoilage and defects
  • OK if eaten within a day or two of manufacture
  • Otherwise pH high, other bacteria can grow
  • Shelf-life short at r.t. (before sporulation)
    • Vaccum packing in oxygen impermeable plastic
    • Freezing
    • Dehydrated or cooked or processed prior to packaging
manufacture of sake and rice wine
Manufacture of Sake and Rice Wine
  • Using rice instead of grapes
    • Complex polysaccharides need to be hydrolyzed
      • Exogenous enzymes
      • Rice koji
      • Ethanolic fermentation simultaneously with saccarification
  • Most popular in China and Japan, but consumption decreased recently
  • US consumption upswing