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The Early Years of the War

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Chapter 7, Section 1. The Early Years of the War. Americans Divided. Loyalists vs. Patriots Not everyone wanted independence 20-30\% Loyalists Native Americans divided too Fear Americans would take land African-Americans British offered freedom Some joined Americans

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americans divided
Americans Divided
  • Loyalists vs. Patriots
    • Not everyone wanted independence
    • 20-30% Loyalists
  • Native Americans divided too
    • Fear Americans would take land
  • African-Americans
    • British offered freedom
    • Some joined Americans
  • Some families split too
creating an army
Creating an Army
  • Problems building an Army:
    • Not everyone wanted to join
    • 1 year of service?
    • When time was up they went home
    • Never more than 17,000 soldiers
  • Women tried to help
    • Cooks
    • Laundry
    • Nurses

Deborah Sampson

Mary Hays

“Molly Pitcher”

struggle for the middle states
Struggle for the Middle States
  • Washington moved troops to New York
    • British kept to coastal cities
      • Waited for reinforcements
      • Hessian mercenaries
  • British and Colonists fought for New York
    • Colonial Army defeated
    • Retreated through New Jersey
  • Trenton and Princeton
    • Washington needed quick victory
britain s strategy
Britain’s Strategy
  • British overall plan:
    • Seize Hudson Valley
    • Cut off New England from other colonies
  • British Army from Canada
    • Moved south to meet up with General Howe
    • Re-captured Ft. Ticonderoga
    • Beat up by terrain and militia
    • Howe did not meet with them
battles along the mohawk
Battles Along the Mohawk
  • August 1777
  • Iroquois natives fighting for British
    • Supported St. Leger’s forces from Canada
  • Colonial General Benedict Arnold
    • Led small Army into Mohawk Valley
    • Spread rumor that he had much larger army
    • St. Leger’s troops tricked
    • Many fled leaving supplies
saratoga a turning point
Saratoga: A Turning Point
  • Colonial General Horatio Gates
    • Set up fortifications on ridge near Saratoga, NY
    • Goal was to stop British Army from getting to Albany, NY

Battle of Saratoga

  • Sept-Oct, 1777
    • British attacked
    • Benedict Arnold attacked British flank
    • British and mercenaries fell back
    • Colonists surrounded British
    • British forced to surrender
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