language family n.
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Language family

Language family

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Language family

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  1. Language family BBI 3101 - LANGUAGE FAMILIES - LECTURE TWO

  2. What is a language family? • A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common ancestor, called the proto-language of that family. • The term comes from the Tree model of language origination in historical linguistics, which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree or in a subsequent modification to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy. BBI 3101 - LANGUAGE FAMILIES - LECTURE TWO

  3. Living languages, dead languages and extinct languages • As of early 2009, SIL catalogued 6,909 living human languages. • A "living language" is simply one which is in wide use as a primary form of communication by a specific group of living people. • The exact number of known living languages will vary from 5,000 to 10,000, depending generally on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects. • There are also many dead and, distinct from dead, extinct languages. BBI 3101 - LANGUAGE FAMILIES - LECTURE TWO

  4. Membership in a family • Membership of languages in the same language family is established by comparative linguistics. • Daughter languages are said to have a genetic or genealogical relationship. • The evidence of linguistic relationship is observable through shared characteristics that are not attributed to borrowing. • Genealogically related languages present shared retentions, that is, features of the proto-language (or reflexes of such features) that cannot be explained by chance or borrowing. BBI 3101 - LANGUAGE FAMILIES - LECTURE TWO

  5. Membership in a family • Membership in a branch or group within a language family is established by shared innovations; that is, common features of those languages which are not attested in the common ancestor of the entire family. • For example, what makes Germanic languages "Germanic" is that they share vocabulary and grammatical features which are not believed to have been present in Proto-Indo-European. • These features are believed to be innovations that took place in Proto-Germanic, a descendant of Proto-Indo-European that was the source of all Germanic languages. BBI 3101 - LANGUAGE FAMILIES - LECTURE TWO

  6. Structure of a family • A family is a phylogenetic unit; that is, all its members derive from a common ancestor, and all attested descendants of that ancestor are included in the family. • However, unlike the case of biological nomenclature, every level of language relationship is commonly called a family. • For example, the Germanic, Slavic, Romance, and Indic language families are branches of a larger Indo-European language family. BBI 3101 - LANGUAGE FAMILIES - LECTURE TWO

  7. Subdivision • Language families can be divided into smaller phylogenetic units, conventionally referred to as branches of the family because the history of a language family is often represented as a tree diagram. • However, the term family is not restricted to any one level of this "tree". BBI 3101 - LANGUAGE FAMILIES - LECTURE TWO

  8. Subdivision • The Germanic family, for example, is a branch of the Indo-European family. BBI 3101 - LANGUAGE FAMILIES - LECTURE TWO

  9. Dialect continua • Some closely knit language families, and many branches within larger families, take the form of dialect continua, in which there are no clear-cut borders that make it possible to unequivocally identify, define, or count individual languages within the family. • However, when the differences between the speech of different regions at the extremes of the continuum are so great that there is no mutual intelligibility between them, the continuum cannot meaningfully be seen as a single language. BBI 3101 - LANGUAGE FAMILIES - LECTURE TWO

  10. Dialect continua • A speech variety may also be considered either a language or a dialect depending on social or political considerations, as in the case of Hindi and Urdu within Hindustani. • Thus different sources give sometimes wildly different accounts of the number of languages within a family. • Classifications of the Japonic family, for example, range from one language (a language isolate) to nearly twenty. BBI 3101 - LANGUAGE FAMILIES - LECTURE TWO

  11. Proto-languages • The common ancestor of a language family is seldom known directly, since most languages have a relatively short recorded history. • However, it is possible to recover many features of a proto-language by applying the comparative method —a reconstructive procedure worked out by 19th century linguist August Schleicher. BBI 3101 - LANGUAGE FAMILIES - LECTURE TWO

  12. Proto-languages • This can demonstrate the validity of many of the proposed families in the list of language families. • For example, the reconstructible common ancestor of the Indo-European language family is called Proto Indo-European. • Proto-Indo-European is not attested by written records, since it was spoken before the invention of writing. BBI 3101 - LANGUAGE FAMILIES - LECTURE TWO

  13. Proto-languages • Sometimes, though, a proto-language can be identified with a historically known language. • For instance, dialects of Old Norse are the proto-language of Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Faroese and Icelandic. BBI 3101 - LANGUAGE FAMILIES - LECTURE TWO

  14. Other classifications of languages • Most of the world's languages are known to belong to language families. • Those that have no known relatives (or for which family relationships are only tentatively proposed) are called language isolates, which can be thought of as minimal language families. • An example is Basque. It is generally assumed that most language isolates have relatives, but at a time depth too great for linguistic comparison to recover. BBI 3101 - LANGUAGE FAMILIES - LECTURE TWO

  15. Language isolates • Languages that cannot be reliably classified into any family are known as language isolates. • A language isolated in its own branch within a family, such as Armenian within Indo-European, is often also called an isolate, but the meaning of isolate in such cases is usually clarified. • For instance, Armenian may be referred to as an Indo-European isolate. BBI 3101 - LANGUAGE FAMILIES - LECTURE TWO

  16. Language isolates • By contrast, so far as is known, the Basque language is an absolute isolate: it has not been shown to be related to any other language despite numerous attempts, though it has been influenced by neighboring Romance languages. • A language may be said to be an isolate currently but not historically, if related but now extinct relatives are attested. BBI 3101 - LANGUAGE FAMILIES - LECTURE TWO

  17. Sprachbund • Shared innovations acquired by borrowing or other means, are not considered genetic and have no bearing with the language family concept. BBI 3101 - LANGUAGE FAMILIES - LECTURE TWO

  18. Sprachbund • In a similar vein, there are many similar unique innovations in Germanic and Baltic/Slavic that are far more likely to be areal features than traceable to a common proto-language. • But legitimate uncertainty about whether shared innovations are areal features, coincidence, or inheritance from a common ancestor, leads to disagreement over the proper subdivisions of any large language family. BBI 3101 - LANGUAGE FAMILIES - LECTURE TWO

  19. Sprachbund • A sparchbund is a geographic area having several languages that feature common linguistic structures. • The similarities between those languages are caused by language contact, not by chance or common origin, and are not recognized as criteria that define a language family. BBI 3101 - LANGUAGE FAMILIES - LECTURE TWO

  20. Mixed language • The concept of language families is based on the historical observation that languages develop dialects, which over time may diverge into distinct languages. • However, linguistic ancestry is less clear-cut than familiar biological ancestry, in which species do not crossbreed. BBI 3101 - LANGUAGE FAMILIES - LECTURE TWO

  21. Mixed language • It is more like the evolution of microbes, with extensive lateral gene transfer: Quite distantly related languages may affect each other through language contact, which in extreme cases may lead to creoles or mixed languages with no single ancestor. • In addition, a number of sign languages have developed in isolation and appear to have no relatives at all. • Nonetheless, such cases are relatively rare and most well-attested languages can be unambiguously classified. BBI 3101 - LANGUAGE FAMILIES - LECTURE TWO