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AQA GCSE 1b-7 The Universe. AQA GCSE Physics pages 106 to 115 AQA GCSE Science pages 310 to 319. April 10 th , 2010. AQA GCSE Specification. THE UNIVERSE 11.7 What do we know about the origins of the Universe and how it continues to change?

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aqa gcse 1b 7 the universe

AQA GCSE 1b-7The Universe

AQA GCSE Physics pages 106 to 115

AQA GCSE Science pages 310 to 319

April 10th, 2010

aqa gcse specification
AQA GCSE Specification

THE UNIVERSE

11.7 What do we know about the origins of the Universe and how it continues to change?

Using skills, knowledge and understanding of how science works:

• to compare and contrast the particular advantages and disadvantages of using different types of telescope on Earth and in space to make observations on and deductions about the universe.

Skills, knowledge and understanding of how science works set in the context of:

• If a wave source is moving relative to an observer there will be a change in the observed wavelength and frequency.

• There is a red-shift in light observed from most distant galaxies. The further away galaxies are the bigger the red-shift.

• How the observed red-shift provides evidence that the universe is expanding and supports the ‘big bang’ theory (that the universe began from a very small initial point).

• Observations of the solar system and the galaxies in the universe can be carried out on the Earth or from space.

• Observations are made with telescopes that may detect visible light or other electromagnetic radiations such as radio waves or X-rays.

the doppler effect
The Doppler Effect

As the ambulance travels forwards:

The sound wave in front is compressed

- decreasing its wavelength

- increasing its frequency

The sound wave behind is stretched out:

- increasing its wavelength

- decreasing its frequency

A

B

C

D

A

B

C

D

E

ambulance sound demo

slide4

The Doppler Effect, discovered in 1842 by Christian Doppler, also occurs with light waves.

With light waves:

In front of the moving object

decreasing wavelength and increasing frequency

makes the light BLUER

- known as BLUE SHIFT

Behind the moving object

increasing wavelength and decreasing frequency

makes the light REDER

- known as RED SHIFT

galactic red shift
Galactic red-shift

In 1929 Edwin Hubble discovered that the light from distant galaxies was red-shifted.

He found that the red shift was proportional to the distance to a distant galaxy.

Therefore the more distant a galaxy is away from us the faster it is moving away from us.

Note: Hubble’s observations, and many more since, only apply to DISTANT GALAXIES. Some near by ones, for example the Andromeda Galaxy, are moving towards us.

the expansion of the universe
The expansion of the Universe

Hubble’s observations tell us that distant galaxies are receding from us and that the further they are away the faster they are moving away from us.

Hence the Universe is expanding.

Balloon model of the expanding Universe

The space between the galaxies expands and so the galaxies grow further apart

slide7

Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below:

When a wave source is _______ away from an observer the wave emitted is spread out. This is called the _______ Effect and with light it is a cause of ________.

Distant galaxies show red-shift that _________ with their distance away. More distant ________ are therefore moving away from us with ________ speeds.

The red-shit shown by _______ galaxies is evidence that the Universe is _________.

moving

Doppler

red-shift

increases

galaxies

greater

distant

expanding

WORD SELECTION:

Doppler

increases

moving

red-shift

galaxies

expanding

distant

greater

simulations
Expanding Universe - 7stones

Red Shift - eChalk

Doppler Effect - Sound with microphone

Doppler Effect - Iona

Doppler Effect - Explore Science

Doppler Effect (Quick Sound Demo) - Iona

Doppler effect - NTNU

Doppler effect - ambulance - Fendt

Doppler Shift with light - eChalk

Doppler Shift with sound - eChalk

Doppler Shift with sound effects- eChalk

Red Shift - eChalk

Introduction Page to AQA Origin of the Universe

Evidence of the Big Bang including Red Shift - includes applet showing the affect of expansion on wavelength

Simulations
the expanding universe notes questions from pages 106 310 107 311
The expanding UniverseNotes questions from pages 106/310 & 107/311
  • (a) What is a galaxy? (b) What is the name of our galaxy?
  • (a) What is a light year? (b) How big is our galaxy?
  • Copy and answer question (a) on page 106/310.
  • (a) What is ‘red shift’ (b) What causes red shift? (c) What is ‘blue shift’ (d) What causes blue shift?
  • Explain how the Doppler effect occurs with sound waves.
  • (a) What did Edwin Hubble discover about distant galaxies? (b) Explain how his discovery led on to the idea of an expanding Universe.
  • Copy and answer questions (b) and (c) on page 107/311.
  • Copy the Key Points on page 107/311.
  • Answer the summary questions on page 107/311.
the expanding universe answers
In text questions:

Because they are so far away.

It is blue-shifted because its wavelength is reduced.

Galaxy Y

Summary questions:

(a) Orbiting

(b) Expanding

(c) Receding

(d) Approaching

2. (a) Earth, Sun, Andromeda galaxy, Universe.

(b) (i) Planet, star. (ii) Red-shift, galaxy

The expanding Universe ANSWERS
the big bang theory
The Big Bang theory

The Big Bang theory is an explanation for the origin of the Universe. It states that:

  • the Universe is expanding after exploding from a very small initial point.
  • space, time and all matter were created in the Big Bang.

The latest observations indicate that the Big Bang took place about 13 500 million years ago.

This theory was not generally accepted until 1965 before which an alternative explanation for the expansion of the Universe called the ‘Steady State theory’ was dominant. In this theory new matter is continually created in the gap left as the Universe expands.

background microwave radiation

The microwave detector used by Penzias and Wilson

Background microwave radiation

This radiation was first detected by Penzias and Wilson in 1965.

The Big bang produced very short wavelength gamma rays.

As space has expanded these rays have been stretched our so much that they now have the much longer wavelengths of microwaves.

Expanding Universe

slide13

A map of the microwave background radiation

The presence of this radiation throughout the Universe is evidence that supports the Big Bang theory.

slide14

Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below:

The Big Bang theory is an explanation for the _______ of the Universe. According to this theory all space, matter and _____ were created from an exploding very small _______ nearly 14 billion years ago.

Since this time the Universe has been _________ causing the initial _______ rays produced at the Big Bang to have spread out to become __________. The detection of this _________ radiation in 1965 led astronomers to ________ the previous Steady State theory.

origin

time

point

expanding

gamma

microwaves

background

abandon

WORD SELECTION:

expanding

time

microwaves

origin

point

gamma

background

abandon

simulations15
Origin of the Universe - Powerpoint presentation by JAA

Expanding Universe - 7stones

Expanding Universe - eChalk

Age of the Universe - eChalk

Big Bang Time Machine - School Science

Introduction Page to AQA Origin of the Universe

The Big Bang

Evidence of the Big Bang including Red Shift - includes applet showing the affect of expansion on wavelength

Test bite on the Origin of the Universe

Simulations
the big bang notes questions from pages 108 312 109 313
The Big Bang Notes questions from pages 108/312 & 109/313
  • What is the ‘Big Bang’ theory of the origin of the Universe?
  • What was the ‘Steady State’ theory?
  • (a) What is ‘background microwave radiation’? (b) Why does this radiation give support to the ‘Big Bang’ theory?
  • (a) Copy Figure 3 on page 109/313 and outline the various possible futures of the Universe. (b) What determines which future will occur?
  • Copy and answer questions (a), (b) and (c) on pages 108/312 and 109/313.
  • Copy the Key Points on page 109/313.
  • Answer the summary questions on page 109/313.
the big bang answers
In text questions:

Nothing.

It will be stretched even more to longer wavelengths.

The expansion might reverse or it might just gradually stop.

Summary questions:

(a) Created

(b) Expanded

(c) Detected

(d) Stretched

2. (a) The Universe will continue to expand.

(b) The expansion will stop and reverse.

The Big Bang ANSWERS
looking into space

Light Telescope

Jodrell Bank Radio Telescope

The Hubble Space Telescope

Looking into space

Observations of the solar system and the galaxies in the universe can be carried out on the Earth or from space.

Observations are made with telescopes that may detect visible light or other electromagnetic radiations such as radio waves or X-rays.

optical visible light telescopes

The Mount Palomar telescope in California, with an objective mirror of 5m (200 inches), was for many years the world’s largest telescope

Optical (visible light) telescopes

Optical telescopes use a concave mirror or a convex lens to collect light from distant objects.

The greater the size of the mirror or lens:

  • the more light is collected
  • the more the image can be magnified
  • the brighter the image seen

- the more detail seen in the image produced.

radio telescopes
These are used to study strong radio sources such as the Sun, Jupiter, the Milky Way and many other galaxies.

The structure of the Milky Way can be studied using radio waves as these waves are able to travel through gas clouds where visible light cannot. Our knowledge of what is at the centre of our galaxy has been obtained primarily by using radio telescopes.

The bigger the telescope, the more detail it can map out and the further away it can detect radio sources.

Radio telescopes
satellite telescopes
The Earth’s atmosphere affects telescopes on the ground.

- It scatters the light from space objects and makes their images fuzzy.

- It stops most microwaves, infra-red, ultra-violet, X-ray and gamma ray radiation.

Satellites telescopes are not affected by the Earth’s atmosphere.

Objects such as exploding stars and black holes can be studied with such telescopes.

Also far more detailed optical images can be obtained.

The Hubble Space Telescope

Satellite telescopes
slide22

Many of the most spectacular modern images are in fact composites images taken of a number of regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

The picture below of the Whirlpool Galaxy is such an example taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. It is of the galaxy taken with ultra-violet and infra-red as well as with visible light.

question
What are the disadvantages of using satellite telescopes?

They require rockets, for example the Space Shuttle, to be deployed – this is very expensive and dangerous.

They are very difficult to maintain if something goes wrong or wears out.

They are very difficult to update as technology advances.

Question
slide25

Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below:

Telescopes are used to observe objects in ______.

There are ___________ for all regions of the electromagnetic _________ as some objects cannot be observed using ______ light only. For example the main evidence supporting the existence of _________ holes comes from the observation of X-rays.

Satellites have been used in recent years as they do not have the disadvantage of ___________ distortion or being dependent on _________ conditions.

space

telescopes

spectrum

visible

black

atmospheric

weather

WORD SELECTION:

spectrum

black

weather

visible

space

telescopes

atmospheric

simulations26
Refracting Telescope - Fendt

K Taggart's photographs taken through SLOOH - Online telescopes based in the Canary Islands & Chile

BBC Bitesize Revision:

Telescopes

Simulations
looking into space notes questions from pages 110 314 111 315
Looking into space Notes questions from pages 110/314 & 111/315
  • In what ways do telescopes allow us to see more in the night sky?
  • (a) What advantages do space telescopes have over ground based ones? (b) What are their disadvantages?
  • (a) What are radio telescopes used for? (b) Why should their dishes be as large as possible?
  • What are satellite detectors used for?
  • Copy and answer questions (a), (b), (c) and (d) on pages 110/314 and 111/315.
  • Copy the Key Points on page 111/315.
  • Answer the summary questions on page 111/315.
looking into space answers
In text questions:

A shooting star.

The telescope collects more light from a star than the unaided eye does. So stars too faint to be seen with the unaided eye can be seen with a telescope.

HST is in space above the atmosphere.

The infra-red radiation is absorbed by the molecules of the gases in the atmosphere.

Summary questions:

(a) Light, radio waves.

(b) Gamma rays, infra-red radiation.

2. (a) Light from objects in space has to pass through the Earth’s atmosphere to reach ground-based telescopes. The Earth’s atmosphere scatters the light slightly and ‘smudges’ the images out. HST is above the Earth’s atmosphere, so its images aren’t affected.

(b) Gamma rays can’t pass through the atmosphere, so the detectors need to be above the atmosphere whereas radio waves can pass through the atmosphere.

(c) (i) Massive exploding stars.

(ii) Planets beyond the solar system.

Looking into space ANSWERS
how science works answers
How Science WorksANSWERS
  • Hypothesis – the Universe is much older than present evidence suggests.
  • Theory – the Big Bang theory for the creation of the Universe.
  • Prediction – the distance of the galaxies must be greater than calculated.
  • Political influence – Soviet Union after Stalin, influenced the thinking of scientists.
  • Importance of technology – the building of a new, much larger, more powerful and more accurate telescope.