Challenges of Trends of European Adult EducationThe Role of Higher Education in the Development of Adult Learning and Education Dr. Balázs Németh Associate Professor Regional Lifelong Learning Research Centre University of Pécs A PASCAL Associate firstname.lastname@example.org B. Németh – EMAE
„Comparative research in adult education is to some extent always a social science study.” B. Németh – EMAE Peter Jarvis: Towards a Comparative Analysis? In: Jarvis, Peter (ed.) (1992) Perspectives on Adult Education and Training in Europe. NIACE: Leicester, Pp. 413-414.
„The Trends and tendencies of research in adult education are rather similar in many countires of the world – or at least on continents like Europe, Africa or America.” B. Németh – EMAE Franz Pöggeler: Trends in Andragogical Research in Europe In: Jarvis, Peter – Pöggeler, Franz (ed.) (1994)Developments in the Education of Adults in Europe. Peter LANG: Frankfurt am Main, p. 9.
A.S. M. Hely tried to make an attempt, in 1962, to describe the trends of adult education research in international environment in his famous book: Hely, A.S.M. (1962) New Trends in Adult Education from Elsinore to Montreal(Two world conferences on adult education) UNESCO: Paris „But the comparative research in adult education tends today more to discover some similar aspirations for life, probably more than they discover different and separate ones. In the comparative political and economical sciences this means that we have not only to define the national, but also the broader social identity, the European one.” B. Németh – EMAE Franz Pöggeler: Trends in Andragogical Research in Europe In: Jarvis, Peter – Pöggeler, Franz (ed.) (1994)Developments in the Education of Adults in Europe. Peter LANG: Frankfurt am Main, p. 10.
Trends in comparative adult education research: • „It would be principally the same to investigate a topic or a problem in England or in Hungary, in Sweden or in Spain. Not only are the methodological instruments and techniques rather the same, but also the structure of problems that we have to clear are similar”; • „Internationally oriented research is sometimes comparative research. We do not only compare our theories, but also social, political and economic conditions by which theories are influenced. Comparative research is only reliable if we have found a common agreement about principles of comparison and if we compare from international, multi-national point of view.” B. Németh – EMAE Franz Pöggeler: Trends in Andragogical Research in Europe In: Jarvis, Peter – Pöggeler, Franz (ed.) (1994)Developments in the Education of Adults in Europe. Peter LANG: Frankfurt am Main, p. 11.
Trends in comparative adult education research: • „The comparative research in adult education was started in 1958 by Robert Peers in his famous book: • Peers, Robert (1958) Adult Education – A Comparative Study. Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd: London • Comparative research at world-level presumes a precise knowledge of regions and countries, and this precondition can be best fulfilled in teamwork; • Example: Reseach of Pöggeler and Leirman on five continents’ adult education in1979.” B. Németh – EMAE Franz Pöggeler: Trends in Andragogical Research in Europe In: Jarvis, Peter – Pöggeler, Franz (ed.) (1994)Developments in the Education of Adults in Europe. Peter LANG: Frankfurt am Main, p. 11.
Trends in comparative adult education research: • „A review on the recent litearture of adult education in Europe seems to show that political aspects of adult education are „en vogue” because of new political and policy influences of adult education. New results of research in our field make us realise the interdependance between policy and adult education in not uni-directional (from policy to adult education). As an instituion to reform the attitudes of adults, adult education can be a factor of policy and an intervention into political processes. The above mentioned trend to correct international comparisons can be an efficient protection against possible developments of new ideologies.” • Further readings: • Harvey, Brian (ed.) (1981) Policy and Research in Adult Education. University of Nottingham:Nottingham. • Pöggeler, Franz (ed.) (1988) The State and Adult Education. Peter LANG: Frankfurt am Main. B. Németh – EMAE Franz Pöggeler: Trends in Andragogical Research in Europe In: Jarvis, Peter – Pöggeler, Franz (ed.) (1994)Developments in the Education of Adults in Europe. Peter LANG: Frankfurt am Main, p. 11.
Trends in comparative adult education research: • „All research in our filed depends upon a clear picture of the adult as the „subject” of adult education; we must also know the attitudes and self-consciousness of adults, the aims and values of their lives. Here we are moving in the field of a new anthroplogy of the adult. This part of our research work can only be done in interdisciplinary work; • The importance of senior education is evident. Perhaps in ten or twenty years adults of the second half of life will be the major target group of adult education; • Another trend in researching adult education is to register and explain the social structure of the clientele of adult education. (What are the reasons of low and falling participation? What about the feminisation of adult education? Migration issues, etc.) B. Németh – EMAE Franz Pöggeler: Trends in Andragogical Research in Europe In: Jarvis, Peter – Pöggeler, Franz (ed.) (1994)Developments in the Education of Adults in Europe. Peter LANG: Frankfurt am Main, p. 12.
Trends in comparative adult education research: • „ Adult Education has found in the last decades a new dimension in the Thrid World where it is not only acting as an instrument of development aid.” • e.g.: IIZ-DVV/UNESCO UIL „African Adult Education” series. • There is a new trend of efficiency-control and it is necessary to construct a reliable instrument for it. The institutions of adult education, therefore, must cooperate with research in acheiving crieteria for successful learning and teaching; • „Another trend is the research of the life-worlds of adult learners in the context of space as a fourth sector.” Learning cities, regions and communities are becoming important examples of such dimensions; B. Németh – EMAE Franz Pöggeler: Trends in Andragogical Research in Europe In: Jarvis, Peter – Pöggeler, Franz (ed.) (1994)Developments in the Education of Adults in Europe. Peter LANG: Frankfurt am Main, Pp. 13-14.
Major themes of comparativeadulteducationresearch: • Concept • Language • Country/state/area-region • History • Fields of practice • Providers • Policies B. Németh – EMAE Peter Jarvis: Problems in Developing the Study of International Comparative Adult Education In: Jarvis, Peter – Pöggeler, Franz (ed.) (1994) Developments in the Education of Adults in Europe. Peter LANG: Frankfurt am Main, Pp. 146-155.
Old – new roles of HEIs to promote adult learning 35. Member States should actively encourage co-operative research in all aspects of adulteducation and its objectives. Research programmes should have a practical basis. Theyshould be carried out by universities, adult education bodies and research bodies, adopting aninterdisciplinary approach. Measures should be taken with a view to disseminating the experienceand the results of the research programmes to those concerned at the national andinternationallevels. Recommendationonthedevelopment of adulteducation adoptedbythe General Conferenceatitsnineteenth session Nairobi , 26. November 1976. p. 8. B. Németh – EMAE
Current themes for research of adult education in Europe Access, learningcareer and indentity; Activedemocraticcitizenship and adultlearning; Adulteducators, trainers and thedevelopment of profession; Workplace and learning, workplacelearning; History of European adulteducation and training; Gender and adultlearning; Life-history and biographyresearch; Global and local: adultlearning and development; The Challenges of migration, minorities,, racism, and xenofobia; Education and training of olderadults and theelderly; Researches and surveysinadultlearningandeducation policy. Source: http://www.esrea.org/networks?l=en B. Németh – EMAE
Old – new roles of HEIs to promote adult learning Promoting the development of institutions, organisations and movements of sustainable and accessible adult learning and education; Promoting the formation and development of law and policy tools for adult learning and education in order to foster access, equal opportunity/inclusiveness and equity especially for underrepresented groups of adults (Please find more in the CONFINTEA V and VI reports); B. Németh – EMAE
Old – new roles of HEIs to promote adult learning Developingpartnershipamongstinstitutions and organisations of adultlearning and educationat local, regional, national and internationallevelstosignalthetask of raisingmobility, creativity, awarenessoneconomic, social, intellectual (scientific – cultural and art) and environmentalissues; Developingpartnershipamongstadultlearning, education(ALE) and othersectors of education(e.g. publiceducation, highereducation, VET-sector)and stakeholdersinfluencing ALE, like local councils, trade unions, civicgroups/NGOs, churches, employers, etc. B. Németh – EMAE
Old – new roles of HEIs to promote adult learning Promotingparticipationinmobility and parnership-basedprojectsin LLP Grundtvig, Leonardo da Vinci, Erasmus, and otherEU-fundedprogrammessoastodevelopqualityadultlearningandeducation; Enhancingtheusage and/orthedevelopmentof VPL and RPLmodels; Researchingand innovatingadultlearning and educationwithcomparativeapproachon major issuesinfluencing ALE; B. Németh – EMAE
The 1919 Report and its message today „the economic recovery of the nation and the proper use of their responsibilities by millions of new voters (including women for the first time) depend on the creation of a more intelligent public opinion. Therefore, adult education is a permanent national necessity, an inseparable aspect of citizenship and the opportunity for adult education should be spread uniformly and systematically over the whole community.” In. Fieldhouse, Roger (1996) A History of Modern British Adult Education. Historical and political context. NIACE, Leicester. p. 5. B. Németh – EMAE
Statement The most important issue for relevant stakeholders today is to raise participation in adult learning through various tools, like bottom-up planning and policy-development, proper financing initiatives, better provision, motivation, second chance programmes, partnership-based actions, voluntary services, community development and citizenship-orientations, the education and training of adult educators and, last but not least, theory-based, practice-oriented research and innovation through a strong involvement and participation of HEIs as part of their lifelong learning mission. B. Németh – EMAE
How can the EC better support co-operation and exchange in Adult Learning? Some proposals The EC organisean Adult Learning Academy with annual programmes for practitioner adult educators, trainers, policy makers and researchers in cooperation with stakeholders; The website of the EC dealing with adult learning ought to be more structured and interactive in order to represent more examples of the EC should promote the organisation of on-going EU Presidency dialogue on adult learning in order to help reaching ET 2020 and EU 2020 strategic goals.Goodpractice links, together with concrete project-examples at national agencies; The EC should promote the organisation of on-going EU Presidency dialogue/conferenceon adult learning in lineswithET 2020 and EU 2020 strategic goals. B. Németh – EMAE
Major roles of adult education research „The major role of adult education research, as a scientific discipline, is to identify the significant barriers and drivers of adult learning.” Bélanger, Paul (2011) Theories in Adult Learning and Education. Barbara Budrich Publishers, Opladen & Farmington Hills p. 7. B. Németh – EMAE
Recommendations in relation to Adult Learning and Education in universities regarding research needs which universities provide innovative models of learning cities and regions around Europe and on other continents can be used as a proper frame for action in a more partnership-based initiative so as to combine local – regional services and provisions in adult learning and education to match learning needs; Universitiespromote new places of learning, like libraries, museums, companies and themselves or even some peculiar virtual communities by cementing and widening a third mission,which requires a strong involvement of adult learning and education, in the context of, for example, intergenerational learning and intercultural orientation, identity building, tohelpbalancing social and economic interests with holistic approaches and ethical issues to influence concrete forms of the knowledge triangle. B. Németh – EMAE
Recommendations in relation to Adult Learning and Education in universities regarding research needs which universities provide HEIs represent in this context the education and training of adult educators and other training providers in regional, national and European partnership.Make more use of thisinthenew Action Plan B. Németh – EMAE
Two priorities in adult learning policy in Europe for a next Adult Learning Action Plan Priority 1. As part of the Improvement of the quality of provision, thedevelopment of adult learning is essentialthrough new programmes focusing on community development, social cohesion and active citizenship for societies of inclusion and solidarity; Priority 2. Quality development of and applied research of policy and practice with providers for sustainable and accessible adult learning and education in alliance with universities opening doors for adults throughflexible routes situationsof learning. B. Németh – EMAE
Adult Learning Action Plan: It is always a good time to learn. (EC, 27. 09. 2007.) COM (2007.) 558 final Efficientadultlearningsector: Policy: meet the needs of economy and society; Governance: quality, efficiency and accountability; Delivery: flexible access, recognition and validation, learning closer to the learner, financial support B. Németh – EMAE
Adult Learning Action Plan: It is always a good time to learn. (EC, 27. 09. 2007.) COM (2007.) 558 final Focus of the Action Plan: Those who are disadvantaged because of their: Low literacy skills; Inadequate work skills; Insufficient skills for successful integration into society. B. Németh – EMAE
Problem areas Some basic questions for research: History and development, orientation; ConditionsA: political/social – economic – legal (Who, when, why) ConditionsB: methods – tools – curricula (What, how) Language/terminology; Spatial approachA: local/regional – national - supranational (Where) Comparative approach; Spatial approachB: formal – non-formal - informal B. Németh – EMAE
Key questions Implementation of the Action Plan/Renewed Agenda on Adult Learning; Starting methods and process of validating and recognising PL; Improving second chance education; Reducing the number of early school leavers and of functional illiterates; Raising the level of qualification of labour force/ upgrading skills; Quality development of VET and partnership-based trainings with enterprises; Education and training of adult learning staff and providers – a role for HE; Finding new forms and mechanisms for funding adult learning; Promoting and engagement in quality research in adult education and with comparative methods; . B. Németh – EMAE
Conclusions • Adult learning and education research must promote , in all sectors of education, a new focus on adult learning to raise participation with better outcomes and performance; • Researchers must clearly define and describe the social and economic benefits of adult learning; • Researchers, in direct and indirect ways, must foster the culture of adult learning and the strategies for social mobility in each EU-member states; • Researches must help adult learning and education become and integral part of education and training policies; • Policy research must underline the importance of the applicatoin of Open Method of Coordination, as a policy tool, in the development of adult learning; • Further EU-level studies: http://adultlearning-budapest2011.teamwork.fr/en/background B. Németh – EMAE