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Cell Membrane (Transport) Notes Cell Membrane and Cell Wall: PowerPoint Presentation
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Cell Membrane (Transport) Notes Cell Membrane and Cell Wall: ALL cells have a cell membrane made of proteins and lipids. protein channel. Layer 1. Cell Membrane. Layer 2. lipid bilayer. protein pump. Cell Membrane. Cell Wall.

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slide1

Cell Membrane (Transport) Notes

Cell Membrane and Cell Wall:

  • ALLcells have a cell membrane made of proteins and lipids

protein channel

Layer 1

Cell Membrane

Layer 2

lipid bilayer

protein pump

Cell Membrane

Cell Wall

  • SOME cells have cell membranes andcell walls – ex: plants, fungi and bacteria
slide2

Plant cells have a cell wall made of cellulose – that cellulose is fiber in our diet

  • Bacteria and fungi also have cell walls, but they do not contain cellulose
  • Cell membranes and cell walls are porous allowing water, carbon dioxide, oxygen and nutrients to pass through easily
slide3

Function of the Cell Membrane:

  • Cell membrane separates the components of a cell from its environment—surrounds the cell
  • “Gatekeeper” of the cell—regulates the flow of materials into and out of cell—selectively permeable
  • Cell membrane helps cells maintain homeostasis—stable internal balance
slide4

Passive Transport

A process that does not require energy to move molecules from a HIGH to LOWconcentration

  • Diffusion
  • Facilitated Diffusion
  • Osmosis
slide5

outside of cell

inside of cell

  • Diffusion is the movement of small particles across a selectively permeablemembrane like thecell membrane until equilibrium is reached.

These particles move from an area of high concentrationto an area of low concentration.

slide6

Diffusion

HIGH to LOW concentration

slide7

Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane like the cellmembrane

Water diffuses across a membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.

Semi-permeable membrane is permeable to water, but not to sugar

slide10

Glucose molecules

outside of cell

inside of cell

  • Facilitated Diffusion is the movement of larger molecules like glucose through the cell membrane – larger molecules must be “helped”

Proteins in the cell membrane form channels for large molecules to pass through

Proteins that form channels (pores) are called protein channels

slide12

Hypertonic Solutions: contain a high concentration of solute relative to another solution (e.g. the cell's cytoplasm). When a cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, the water diffuses out of the cell, causing the cell to shrivel.

Hypotonic Solutions: contain a low concentration of solute relative to another solution (e.g. the cell's cytoplasm). When a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution, the water diffusesinto the cell, causing the cell to swell and possibly explode.

Isotonic Solutions: contain the same concentration of solute as another solution (e.g. the cell's cytoplasm). When a cell is placed in an isotonic solution, the water diffusesinto and out of the cell at the same rate. The fluid that surrounds the body cells is isotonic.

slide15

Active Transport

Active transport is the movement of molecules from LOW to HIGH concentration.

Energy is required as molecules must be pumped against the concentration gradient.

Proteins that work as pumps are called protein pumps.

Ex: Body cells must pump carbon dioxide out into the surrounding blood vessels to be carried to the lungs for exhale. Blood vessels are high in carbon dioxide compared to the cells, so energy is required to move the carbon dioxide across the cell membrane from LOW to HIGH concentration.

outside of cell

Carbon Dioxide molecules

inside of cell

slide18

Endocytosis and Exocytosis is the mechanism by which very large molecules (such as food and wastes) get into and out of the cell

Food is moved into the cell by Endocytosis

Wastes are moved out of the cell by Exocytosis

slide20

Ex: White Blood Cells, which are part of the immune system, surround and engulf bacteria by endocytosis.

animal cells
Animal Cells
  • Can not make their own food so they have to eat food
  • Do not go through photosynthesis
  • Animal cells are more round shaped
  • Animal cells have lysosomes
  • Animal cells can not make sugar
  • Animal cells use mitochondria to release energy
animal cells cont
Animal cells cont.
  • Animal cells do not have a cell wall
  • We are all made of animal cells
  • Animal cells do not have a large vacuole
  • They do not have chloroplast
similarities of animal and plant cells
Similarities of Animal and Plant Cells
  • They both have a nucleus
  • They both have ribosome's that make protein
  • Animal and plant cells both have Golgi bodies
  • They both have cytoplasm
  • They both have vacuoles that store food, water and waste products.
plant cells
Plant Cells
  • Plant cells have a cell wall
  • Plant cells have a large vacuole unlike the animal cell
  • Plant cells do not have mitochondria
  • They also do not have lysosome’s
  • Plant cells are in the shape of a rectangle
  • Plant cells go through photosynthesis
plant cells cont
Plant Cells cont.
  • Plant cells have chloroplast
  • Plant cells use chloroplast to store energy
  • They also have cell membranes