Grammar Review. Use Commas:. -Between items in a series: All my cousins , aunts , and uncles came to our family reunion. **Commas do go before the and ! -If all the items are joined by and , or , or nor do not use commas to separate them! I need tacks and nails and a hammer.
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-Between items in a series:
All my cousins, aunts, and uncles came to
our family reunion.
**Commas do go before the and!
-If all the items are joined by and, or, or nor donot use commas to separate them!
I need tacks and nails and a hammer.
-Between short independent clauses
The engine roared, the wheels spun, and a cloud of dust swirled behind the sports car.
-Before and, but, for, nor, so, or yet when it joins independent clauses.
Hector pressed the button, and the engine started up.
-To set off nonessential clauses (which aren’t needed to complete the sentence)
Tim Ricardo, hoping to make the swim team, practiced every day.
-To set off elements that interrupt the sentence
Their new parrot, Mina, is very gentle
An amateur photographer, my cousin prepared a slide show on soil erosion.
-After introductory elements such as:
Oh, I didn’t see you there.
-A prepositional phrase (which will start with a preposition)
Near the door to the garage, you will find hooks for the car keys.
-A participle phrase (where a verb form is used as an adjective because it modifies a noun)
Watching the clock, the coach became worried
(The word watching is actually an adjective that modifies the noun coach— “The clock watching coach became worried”)
-An adverb clause (a clause that modifies a verb, adjective, or an adverb)
After I had proofread my paper, I input the corrections.
(The clause After I had proofread my paper tells when I input the corrections)
-Use between independent clauses that are closely related in meaning
Patty likes to act; her sister gets stage fright.
-Use to separate clauses that contain many commas
Alana, Eric, and Kim voted for her; and Scott, Roland, and Vanessa voted for Jason.
-Use between items in a series if the items contain comma
The Photography Club will meet on Wednesday, September 12; Wednesday, September 19; and Tuesday, September 25.
You will need to bring the following equipment: a sleeping bag, a warm sweater, and extra socks.
Horace Mann had this to say: “Do not think of knocking out another person’s brains because he differs in opinion from you. It would be as rational to knock yourself on the head because you differ from yourself ten years ago.”
Thomas Jefferson had many talents: he was a writer, a politician, an architect, and an inventor.
Miss Perez answered, “The rest of the chapter, of course.”
Are our ideals, as Scott says, mere “statues of snow” that soon melt?
“I haven’t seen the movie,” remarked Jeannette, “but I understand that it’s excellent.”
The following actresses were nominated for the award for “best performance in a leading role”: Helen Hunt, Meryl Streep, and Jodie Foster.
“Is it too cold in here?” the manager asked as I shivered.
It’s not an insult to be called a “bookworm”!
“What’s that?” Sally demanded impatiently
Luisa seemed surprised. “what’s what?
“That thing, what you got in your hand.”
Annoyed, Becky snapped, “Don’t tell me, ‘That’s not the way to do it.’”
The mayor’s desk, a dollar’s worth
the actress’s costumes, the dress’s sleeves
two birds’ feathers, all three cousins’ vacations
There are a thousand reasons—well, not a thousand, but many—that we should go.
“You’re being—” Tina began and then stopped.
I know what we could get mom for her birthday—a new photo album. (namely)
She could put all those loose pictures—the ones she’s taken since Christmas—in it. (that is)
During the Middle Ages (from about A.D. 500 to A.D. 1500), both Moors and Vikings invaded parts of Europe.
Fill in the application carefully. (Use a pen.)
After we ate dinner (we had leftovers again), we went to the mall.
The coach instructed us.
Expresses an action done
To its subject.
We were instructed by
It was time for celebration.(the prepositional phrase “for celebration” acts as an adjective that modifies the noun time)
Before Toni left for work, she took the dog for a walk.(The adverb clause “Before Toni left for work” modifies the verb took)
Bad=An adjective: The dog was bad.
Badly=An Adverb: The dog behaved badly.
Good=An adjective: His Italian sounds good.
Well=Adverb: He speaks Italian well.
Slow=Can be both and adjective and adverb:
Go slow. We took a slow drive.
Slowly=An adverb: The train slowly came to a stop.