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Cucumber Beetle Management Using Seed Treatments

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  1. Cucumber Beetle Management Using Seed Treatments January 20, 2008 Brian A. Nault Associate Professor Department of Entomology Cornell University New York State Agric. Exp. Stn. 630 W. North Street Geneva, NY

  2. Spotted and Striped Cucumber Beetles • Identification • Adults are 8-10 mm in • length and 3-4 mm wide • Spotted cucumber beetle, • Diabrotica undecimpunctata • Striped cucumber beetle, • Acalymma vittatum

  3. Striped cucumber beetle(Acalymma vittatum) • Lifecycle • Overwinters as an • adult in protected • areas and becomes • active in early spring • Lays eggs at base of • host plant; two generations per year

  4. Adult Activity April May June July Aug Sept Oct Cucumber Beetles April May June July Aug Sept Oct

  5. Types of Cucumber Beetle Damage Defoliation Pollination interference Feeding scars Rindworms

  6. Bacterial Wilt Disease C. Welty Causal Organism - Erwinia tracheiphila, which is transmitted by cucumber beetle adults

  7. Cucumber Beetles - Bacterial Wilt • Worst damage caused by • bacterial wilt, not beetle • damage • Diagnosed by cutting stem • and looking for stringy sap • No cure for controlling • bacteria; must control vector • Beetle may not be present • during wilting • Susceptibility of crop to wilt: Melons > cucumbers > squash > watermelon

  8. General Approaches Taken to Manage Cucumber Beetles *Chemical Control Behavioral Control Plant Resistance Managing Cucumber Beetles *Cultural Control Biological Control

  9. Chemical Control • Foliar Sprays • - Sampling activity with yellow sticky traps • - Established thresholds (direct counts on plants): - 1 beetle / plant for melons, cucumbers, and • young pumpkins - 5 beetles / plant for watermelon, squash, and older pumpkins

  10. Chemical Control • At-plant Treatments - Apply in-furrow or via drip irrigation - Drench transplants e.g., 4 ml (0.14 oz) of Admire diluted in water to treat a flat of 200 plants

  11. cucumber pumpkin squash Chemical Control • Seed Treatments - thiamethoxam - Cruiser 5FS - FarMore DI-400 - clothianidin + imidacloprid - Sepresto (registration package submitted summer 2008)

  12. Collaborative Effort to Evaluate Seed Treatments • Researchers New York – Alan Taylor, Brian Nault, Robert Hadad & Charles Bornt Ohio – Celeste Welty Maryland - Jerry Brust Virginia – Thomas Kuhar Delaware – Joanne Whalen • IR- 4 Project - Keith Dorschner

  13. Objective • Evaluate neonicotinoid seed treatments for early-season cucumber beetle control in cucumber and pumpkin

  14. Treatments • Seed Treatments • * Cruiser 5FS @ 0.75 mg ai/seed • * Sepresto @ 1 mg ai/seed • * Admire Pro @ 1 fl oz of Admire Pro mixed with 1 fl oz of water to treat 1 lb of seeds • At-plant Treatments • Admire Pro @ 7 fl oz/acre • * Platinum @ 8 fl oz/acre • Crops • cucumber (var. ‘Vlaspik’) • pumpkin (var. ‘Gladiator’) * Not labeled in New York

  15. Approach In the field:Visually record number of dead beetles per 10 plants per plot each week for 5 weeks (NY) In the lab:Sample foliage from field plots and conduct assays in laboratory to assess beetle mortality (NY, VA and DE)

  16. Total Mean Number of Dead Beetles per 10 plants over 5-Week Periodin the Cucumber Field – Eden, NY 2008 a a b b Number of Dead Beetles/ 10 plants R. Hadad - 2008

  17. Petri Dish 2-leaf 4-leaf 7-leaf Laboratory Assay Stage of Plant Sampled • 10 beetles per dish (NY); 5 beetles per dish (VA & DE) • 2-, 4- and 7-leaf stage (NY); 4-leaf stage (VA & DE) • Record # dead at 72 hr (NY) and 96 hr (VA & DE)

  18. Mortality (after 72 hr) on Excised Pumpkin Leaves Collected from Field Plots – Geneva, NY 2008 a b ab b b c Beetle Mortality (%) B. Nault - 2008

  19. Mortality (after 72 hr) on Excised Pumpkin Leaves Collected from Field Plots – Geneva, NY 2008 b c b a c c Beetle Mortality (%) B. Nault - 2008

  20. Mortality (after 72 hr) on Excised Pumpkin Leaves Collected from Field Plots – Geneva, NY 2008 ab c a bc c bc Beetle Mortality (%) B. Nault - 2008

  21. Mortality (after 96 hr) on Excised Cucumber Leaves Collected from Field Plots – Painter, VA 2008 a a b b b Beetle Mortality (%) T. Kuhar - 2008

  22. Mortality (after 96 hr) on Excised Cucumber Leaves Collected from Field Plots – Georgetown, DE 2008 a a a a b Beetle Mortality (%) J. Whalon - 2008

  23. Summary • Cruiser and Sepresto seed treatments had similar or better activity against cucumber beetle than Admire and Platinum at-plant treatments • Efficacy of Cruiser and Sepresto seed treatments did not extend beyond 4-leaf stage (20 to 26 days after planting)

  24. Benefits of Seed Treatments • Saves time – just plant treated seed • Less exposure to active ingredient (a.i.) • Precise amount of a.i. applied to seed • Often use considerably less a.i. per acre • Less risk of killing non-target organisms

  25. Future Work • Repeat study in 2009; more on-farm trials with extension educators • Potentially assess efficacy of Cruiser 5FS/ Farmore DI 400 and Sepresto on other insect pests

  26. Acknowledgements Collaborators: Alan Taylor, Robert Hadad, Tom Kuhar, Joanne Whalon Technical Assistance: Mary Lou Hessney (Entomology, NYSAES) • Grower: • Laura Pedersen (Geneva, NY) • Funding: • IR-4 Project • Federal Formula Funds

  27. The End?