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PROPOSED GROUND WATER RULE. US EPA Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water. OVERVIEW. Rule Development Background SDWA Mandate Public Health Risks Baseline Information Number and Size of Systems Location of Systems Existing State Requirements Regulatory Approach

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proposed ground water rule

PROPOSED GROUND WATER RULE

US EPA

Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water

overview
OVERVIEW
  • Rule Development Background
    • SDWA Mandate
    • Public Health Risks
  • Baseline Information
    • Number and Size of Systems
    • Location of Systems
    • Existing State Requirements
  • Regulatory Approach
    • Rule Development Process
    • Guiding Principles
    • Applicability
    • Regulatory Provisions
rule development background sdwa mandate
RULE DEVELOPMENT BACKGROUND:SDWA MANDATE
  • Subsection 1412(b)(8) of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)
    • “...promulgate national primary drinking water regulations requiring disinfection as a treatment technique for all public water systems, including surface water systems and, as necessary, ground water systems.”
  • and
    • “…(as part of the regulations) promulgate criteria…to determine whether disinfection shall be required as a treatment technique for any public water system served by ground water.”
rule development background public health risks
RULE DEVELOPMENT BACKGROUND:PUBLIC HEALTH RISKS
  • CDC Outbreak Data: 1971–1996
    • 318 of 371 outbreaks associated with ground water systems
    • Of those 318 microbial outbreaks:
      • 86% were associated with source water
      • 11% were associated with the distribution system
      • 3% were of unknown cause
    • Of those involving source water, just under half were systems practicing disinfection
rule development background public health risks cont
RULE DEVELOPMENT BACKGROUND:PUBLIC HEALTH RISKS (cont.)
  • Occurrence Studies
    • 13 Independent studies
    • AWWARF study is the most comprehensive
      • 448 wells sampled in 35 States
      • Hydrogeologically representative
    • Analyses of AWWARF study data indicate viral pathogens are detected in 4%–31% of wells
baseline information number and size of systems

44,000 CWS

94,000 TNC

19,000 NTNC

BASELINE INFORMATION:NUMBER AND SIZE OF SYSTEMS

157,000 total ground water systems

CWS—Community Water System

NTNC—Non-Transient Non-Community

TNC—Transient Non-Community

Percent Disinfecting

CWS — 68%

NTNC — 28%

TNC — 18%

Note: disinfecting systems may not be

achieving 4-log inactivation of viruses

baseline information number and size of systems cont
BASELINE INFORMATION:NUMBER AND SIZE OF SYSTEMS (cont.)

100%

90%

System Size byPopulation Served

80%

70%

>10K

3.3K-10K

60%

1K-3.3K

50%

500-1K

40%

101-500

<100

30%

20%

10%

0%

Percent of Systems

Percent of Population

baseline information location of systems
BASELINE INFORMATION:LOCATION OF SYSTEMS

4 states with fewer than 500 systems

10 states with 500–1,000 systems

31 states with 1,001–8,000 systems

5 states with more than 8,000 systems

baseline information existing state requirements
BASELINE INFORMATION:EXISTING STATE REQUIREMENTS
  • Disinfection
    • 5 States require across-the-board
    • 49 States require some disinfection. Almost all others require under certain conditions
  • Sanitary Surveys
    • 49 States require under TCR rule
    • GAO Study suggests not sufficient
  • Well Construction and Siting
    • 48 States have well construction standards and 47 have minimum setback distances from microbial sources
regulatory approach rule development process
REGULATORY APPROACH:RULE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
  • Workgroup Process established April 1997
  • SBREFA Consultations
  • Stakeholder Meetings
  • ASDWA Early Involvement Meetings
  • Draft Ground Water Rule Preamble
regulatory approach regulatory provisions

REGULATORY APPROACH:REGULATORY PROVISIONS

Source Water

Monitoring

Compliance

monitoring

Sanitary

Survey

Corrective Actions

Sewer Line

Sensitivity Assessments

regulatory provisions rule applicability
REGULATORY PROVISIONS:RULE APPLICABILITY
  • The Ground Water Rule applies to:
    • PWS that use ground water as the only source
    • The ground water sources for mixed source PWSs which do not receive treatment in compliance with Subpart H
  • The Ground Water Rule does not apply to:
    • Systems using ground water under the direct influence of surface water (GWUDI) as a source
    • Private wells
regulatory provisions sanitary surveys
REGULATORY PROVISIONS:SANITARY SURVEYS
  • Purpose
    • A comprehensive examination of a water system to identify potential sources of contamination
  • Scope
    • All ground water systems
  • Frequency
    • Every 3 years for CWS; 5 years for NCWS
regulatory provisions sanitary surveys continued
REGULATORY PROVISIONS:SANITARY SURVEYS (continued)
  • Eight Elements of a Sanitary Survey
    • Source
    • Treatment
    • Distribution system integrity
    • Finished water storage
    • Pumps, pump facilities, and control
    • Monitoring, reporting, and data verification
    • Water system management and operations
    • Water system operator compliance with State requirements
regulatory provisions sanitary surveys continued1
REGULATORY PROVISIONS:SANITARY SURVEYS (continued)
  • States must identify significant deficiencies
  • State must have corrective action authority
  • Systems must fix significant deficiencies or apply treatment
regulatory provisions hydrogeologic sensitivity assessment
REGULATORY PROVISIONS:HYDROGEOLOGIC SENSITIVITY ASSESSMENT
  • Purpose
    • To identify sensitive sources that will be required to perform routine monitoring
  • Scope
    • Non-disinfecting ground water systems
  • Frequency
    • One-time assessment
regulatory provisions hydrogeologic sensitivity assessment continued
REGULATORY PROVISIONS:HYDROGEOLOGIC SENSITIVITY ASSESSMENT (continued)
  • Two key components of a hydrogeologic assessment:
    • State determines whether a system’s wells are located in a sensitive aquifer type (karst, gravel, or fractured bed rock)
    • State determines whether a hydrogeologic barrier is present that protects wells in a sensitive aquifer type
  • States may use information collected through the SWAPP for the hydrogeologic sensitivity assessment
regulatory provisions source water monitoring
REGULATORY PROVISIONS:SOURCE WATER MONITORING
  • Two types of source water monitoring requirements:
    • Routine source water monitoring
    • Triggered source water monitoring
regulatory provisions routine source water monitoring
REGULATORY PROVISIONS:ROUTINE SOURCE WATER MONITORING
  • Purpose
    • To determine if a sensitive source has fecal contamination
  • Scope
    • Hydrogeologically sensitive sources
  • Frequency
    • Monthly for at least one year
    • Begin 1 month after being notified that source is sensitive
regulatory provisions triggered source water monitoring
REGULATORY PROVISIONS:TRIGGERED SOURCE WATER MONITORING
  • Purpose
    • To determine if a TC positive sample is caused by source water contamination
  • Scope
    • Systems that do not disinfect
  • Frequency
    • Triggered by a total coliform positive sample
    • Must sample source water within 24 hours
regulatory provisions source water monitoring methods
REGULATORY PROVISIONS:SOURCE WATER MONITORING METHODS
  • Fecal indicator analytical methods -- specified by the State
      • E. coli
        • Coliliert test
        • Colisure test
        • MI agar
        • m-ColiBlue24 test
        • E*Colite test
      • Enterococci
        • Multiple tube technique
        • Membrane filter technique
        • Enterolert
      • Coliphage
        • EPA method 1601
        • EPA method 1602
regulatory provisions corrective action
REGULATORY PROVISIONS:CORRECTIVE ACTION
  • Purpose
    • To protect public health by eliminating or preventing exposure to pathogens
  • Scope
    • Systems with significant defects
    • Systems with source water which tests positive for fecal indicators
  • Frequency
    • Corrective actions must be completed within 90 days or on a State approved schedule
regulatory provisions corrective action continued
REGULATORY PROVISIONS:CORRECTIVE ACTION (continued)
  • Corrective action approaches include:
    • Correct the significant deficiency
    • Eliminate the source of contamination
    • Provide an alternative source of water
    • Provide treatment that reliably achieves 4-log inactivation or removal of viruses
regulatory provisions compliance monitoring
REGULATORY PROVISIONS:COMPLIANCE MONITORING
  • Purpose
    • Ensures reliable disinfection treatment (4-log inactivation or removal of viruses)
  • Scope
    • Systems that notify the State that they currently achieve 4-log inactivation
    • Systems that select disinfection as a corrective action
  • Frequency
    • Continuously for systems serving 3,300 or more people
    • Daily for systems serving 3,300 or fewer people
request for comments
REQUEST FOR COMMENTS
  • To facilitate EPA’s ability to respond to individual comments
    • Indicate what you support as well as what you disagree with
    • Cite, when possible, the paragraphs or sections in the proposal or supporting documents you are commenting on
    • Use a separate paragraph for each issue discussed
    • Please describe any assumptions you have used and provide copies of any technical data to support your comments
request for comments1
REQUEST FOR COMMENTS
  • Public comments on the Rule should be sent to:

By regular mail to:

EPA’s Drinking Water Docket #W-98-23

1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW

Washington, DC 20460

or via e-mail to: ow-docket@epa.gov

  • The public comment period ends August 9, 2000
schedule
SCHEDULE
  • May 10, 2000 Proposed Rule
  • 90 day public comment period ending August 9, 2000
  • Fall 2000 Final Rule
  • Fall 2003 Effective date of the Rule
for more information
FOR MORE INFORMATION
  • Website: http://www.epa.gov/safewater/gwr.html
  • EPA’s Safe Drinking Water Hotline:

1-800-426-4791

- Eric Burneson, burneson.eric@epa.gov or 202-260-1445

- Tracy Bone, bone.tracy@epa.gov or 202-260-2954