prof b i khodanpur hod dept of cse r v college of engineering emailid bi khodanpur@gmail com n.
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Prof. B. I. Khodanpur HOD – Dept. of CSE R. V. College of Engineering. EmailID: bi.khodanpur@gmail.com. Subject: Computer Fundamentals (For EDUSAT) Common Paper for BA / B.Com / B.Sc Code: CS-54. Types of OS:. Operating System can also be classified as,- Single User Systems

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prof b i khodanpur hod dept of cse r v college of engineering emailid bi khodanpur@gmail com

Prof. B. I. KhodanpurHOD – Dept. of CSER. V. College of Engineering.EmailID:bi.khodanpur@gmail.com

Subject: Computer Fundamentals (For EDUSAT)

Common Paper for BA / B.Com / B.Sc

Code: CS-54

types of os
Types of OS:

Operating System can also be classified as,-

  • Single User Systems
  • Multi User Systems
single user systems
Single User Systems:
  • Provides a platform for only one user at a time.
  • They are popularly associated with Desk Top operating system which run on standalone systems where no user accounts are required.
  • Example: DOS
multi user systems
Multi-User Systems:
  • Provides regulated access for a number of users by maintaining a database of known users.
  • Refers to computer systems that support two or more simultaneous users.
  • Another term for multi-user is time sharing.
  • Ex: All mainframes and  are multi-user systems.
  • Example: Unix
contents
Contents
  • Today's Topic:Problem Solving Techniques
  • We will learn
        • Problem Statement.
        • Algorithm
          • Types, Example
        • Flowchart
          • Symbols, Examples.
problem statement
Problem Statement:

Problem Statement help diagnose the situation so that your focus is on the problem, helpful tools at this stage include Algorithms and flowcharts for identifying the expected steps of a process. Therefore to solve any problem,

  • Collect and analyze information and data
  • Talk with people familiar with the problem
  • If at all possible, view the problem first hand
  • Confirm all findings
algorithm
Algorithm:

The algorithm is part of the blueprint or plan for the computer program, an algorithm is:

“An effective procedure for solving a class of problems in a finite number of steps.”

Every algorithm should have the following 5 characteristic feature:

  • Input
  • Output
  • Definiteness
  • Effectiveness
  • Termination
algorithm contd
Algorithm (Contd…):
  • To find largest of three numbers
  • Start
  • Read 3 numbers: num1, num2, num3
  • if num1 > num2 then go to step 5
  • if num2 > num3 then

print num2 is largest

else

print num3 is largest

goto step 6

  • if num1 > num3 then

print num1 is largest

else

print num3 is largest

  • end.
algorithm contd1
Algorithm (Contd…):

Example: One of the simplest algorithms is to find the

largest number in an (unsorted) list of numbers.

High-level description:

  • Assume the first item is largest.
  • Look at each of the remaining items in the list and if it is larger than the largest item so far, make a note of it.
  • The last noted item is the largest in the list when the process is complete.
algorithm contd2
Algorithm (Contd…):

Formal description:Written in prose but much closer to the high-level language of a computer program, the following is the more formal coding of the algorithm in pseudo code (find the largest number in an (unsorted) list of numbers)

Algorithm LargestNumber

Input: A non-empty list of numbers L.

Output: The largest number in the list L.

  • largest ← L0for eachitemin the list L, do
  • if the item > largest, then
  • largest ← the item
  • returnlargest
flowchart
Flowchart:

What is a Flowchart?

  • The flowchart is a means of visually presenting the flow of control through an information processing systems, the operations performed within the system and the sequence in which they are performed.
  • It is a graphic representation of how a process works, showing, at a minimum, the sequence of steps.
  • Flowcharts are generally drawn in the early stages of formulating computer solutions.
flowchart contd
Flowchart (Contd…):

Guideline for drawing a flowchart:

Flowcharts are usually drawn using some standard symbols; Some standard symbols, which are frequently required for flowcharting many computer programs are shown below,-

flowchart contd1
Flowchart (Contd…):

A set of useful standard Flowchart

symbols:

  • Rounded box

use it to represent an event which occurs automatically.

  • Rectangle or box

use it to represent an event which is controlled within the process. Typically this will be a step or action which is taken.

  • Diamond

use it to represent a decision point in the process.

  • Circle

use it to represent a point at which the flowchart connects with another process.

advantages of using flowcharts
ADVANTAGES OF USING FLOWCHARTS:
  • Communication: Flowcharts are better way of communicating the logic of a system
  • Effective analysis: Problem can be analyzed in more effective way.
  • Proper documentation: Flowcharts serve as a good program documentation
  • Efficient Coding: Flowcharts act as a guide or blueprint during the systems analysis and program development phase.
advantages of using flowcharts contd
ADVANTAGES OF USING FLOWCHARTS (Contd…):
  • Proper Debugging: Flowchart helps in debugging process.
  • Efficient Program Maintenance: The maintenance of operating program becomes easy with the help of flowchart.
flowchart example
Flowchart (Example):

Flowchart to find the sum of first 50 natural numbers.

slide24

Flow Chart to find largest of two numbers:

Start

Read A, B

Is A > B

Yes

No

Print B

Print A

End

limitations of using flowcharts
LIMITATIONS OF USING FLOWCHARTS:
  • Complex logic: Sometimes, the program logic is quite complicated. In that case, flowchart becomes complex and clumsy.
  • Alterations and Modifications: If alterations are required the flowchart may require re-drawing completely.
  • Reproduction: As the flowchart symbols cannot be typed, reproduction of flowchart becomes a problem.
flowchart exercise
Flowchart (Exercise):
  • Draw a flowchart to depict all steps that you do reach your college.
  • Draw Flowchart for Linear search.