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Brass = solution. Coffee = solution. Solutions. Chapter 15. Jayhawk says: Chemistry is awesome! Go KU!. The Triple “S” – solution, solvent, solute. Solution: a homogeneous mixture in which the components are uniformly intermingled.

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solutions
Brass = solution

Coffee = solution

Solutions

Chapter 15

Jayhawk says:

Chemistry is

awesome! Go KU!

the triple s solution solvent solute
The Triple “S” – solution, solvent, solute
  • Solution: a homogeneous mixture in which the components are uniformly intermingled.
  • Solvent: the dissolving medium; substance present in the largest amount
  • Solute: substance dissolved in a solvent

Jayhawk says: Did you know solutions with water as the solvent are

Aqueous solutions?

Solute + Solvent

the triple s solution solvent solute1
The Triple “S” – solution, solvent, solute
  • When a solid is being dissolved in a liquid to form a solution, three factors affect the speed of the dissolving process; Surface area, stirring and temperature.

Jayhawk says: Did you know that the Jayhawks were the National Champions in basketball in 2008?

Solute + Solvent

solubility
Solubility
  • Solids
  • Gases
slide5
The most commonly used expression of concentration is molarity.

Molarity

Jayhawksays:

Rock Chalk

Jayhawk!!

Go KU!!

slide6
M = moles of solute

liter of solution

Examples:

#1) A solution contains 0.90 mol of NaCl in 0.50 L of water. Calculate

the M of this solution.

0.90 mol NaCl = 1.8 M

0.50 L H2O

Molarity

Jayhawksays:

Remember to convert to liters if given milliliters.

#2) A solution contains 1.2 g of

Magnesium chloride in 100 mL of

Water. Calculate the M.

slide7
Answer:

1.2g MgCl2 x 1 mol MgCl2 = 0.013mol MgCl2

93.2 g MgCl2

0.013 mol MgCl2= 0.13 M

0.100 L H2O

Molarity

Jayhawksays:

Remember significant figure rules.

slide8
Another Example!!

A 0.40 M solution of glucose contains 8 moles of the solute. What is the volume of this solution?

Molarity

Jayhawksays:

Chemistry RULES!!

slide9
Answer:

Molarity = mol solute

L of soln

So, L (volume) of soln = mol solute

Molarity

Molarity

L = 8 mol

0.40 M

Jayhawksays:

Remember significant figure rules.

Volume = 20 L

slide10
Molality is the number of moles of a given substance per kilogram of solvent.
  • m = Moles of solute
      • Kg of Solvent
  • "one molal solution", i.e. a solution which contains one
  • mole of the solute per 1000 grams of the solvent.

Molality

Jayhawksays:

Chemistry is my favorite class!!

slide11
A solution is prepared by dissolving 0.500 mol of NaCl in 1.000 Kg of H20. Calculate the molality.

A solution contains 1.5 mol of NaCl in 100. g of H20. Calculate the molality.

Molality

Jayhawksays:

Who did the Jayhawks beat in the Orange Bowl last year?

slide12
How many g of potassium iodide must be dissolved in 500. g of water to give a 0.060 molal solution?

Molality

Jayhawksays:

You need to know molality so we can make ice cream.

mole fraction
Mole Fraction
  • Ratio of the number of moles of solute to number of moles of solute and solvent (solution)
slide14
To concentrate a solution, one must add more solute, or reduce the amount of solvent (for instance, by selective evaporation).
  • By contrast, to dilute a solution, one must add more solvent, or reduce the amount of solute.
  • The # of moles of solute stays constant. More H20 is added which increases the volume while decreasing the Molarity.

Dilution

Light, and able to see through, (lightly concentrated)

slide15
Dilution Equation:
  • M(1)V(1) = M(2)V(2)
  • M(1)V(1) are the initial conditions
  • M(2)V(2) are the final conditions (dilute)

Dilution

slide17
You have 1000 mL of 1.0 M HCl in your stockroom. You need 15 mL of 0.02 M solution for a lab. How much of the original solution will you need to make this solution?

Dilution

slide18
Dilution Equation:
  • M(1)V(1) = M(2)V(2)
  • M(1)V(1) are the initial conditions
  • M(2)V(2) are the final conditions (dilute)

Dilution

slide19
Definitions to Know
  • Saturated Solution
  • Unsaturated Solution
  • Supersaturated Solution

Jayhawk says: I hope you learned something in this chapter, and remember, Rock Chalk Jayhawk!

slide20
Percent Volume

- volume of solute x 100

volume of soln

- used for liquids dissolved within liquids

Calculate the % V of isoprpopanol when 20. mL of the alcohol

Is diluted with water for a final volume of 100. mL

A soln has a total V of 1000 mL after water was added to 25 mL

of ethanol. What is the % V of the ethanol soln?

Jayhawk says: Listen

up class, it’s time for

an example.

slide21
Mass Percent
  • mass of solute x 100
  • mass of soln
  • grams of solution = grams of solute + grams of solvent

A hydrochloric acid soln was made by adding 59.26 g

of HCl to 100 g H20. Calculate the % mass of HCl

in the soln.

Calculate the mass % of octane when 10.5 g C8H18

is mixed with 40.0 g of C6H14.Octane is the solute.

Jayhawk says: How

many more days of

school do we have?

Answer on next page.

slide22
Percent Mass/ Volume
  • mass of solute x 100
  • volume of soln
  • most often seen with g/mL units, but g/L are o.k. (make sure to label)

A 100 mL soln containing 7.0 g of MgCl2 is what %

mass/volume of MgCl2?

Jayhawk says: 45,

After today!! Yippee!!

slide23
Solution Composition
  • Calculating ion concentration from Molarity
  • Solute concentration is always written in terms of the solute form before it dissolves.
  • Now, we need to account for ions in soln, dissociation of ions when dissolved.

Jayhawk says: What

is in that beaker of

magnesium chloride

solution?

slide24
Solution Composition
  • Needed
    • Solubility Tables
    • Balanced Equations
    • Net Ionic Equations
    • M = [ ]

Jayhawk says: Don’t

forget to always check

your solubility table!

give the of all ions in the soln below
Give the [ ] of all ions in the soln below
  • 0.50 M Co(NO3)2
  • Dissociation Rxn:
  • Determine M of each ion:
give the of all ions in the soln below1
Give the [ ] of all ions in the soln below
  • 1.0 M FeCl3
  • Dissociation Rxn:
  • Determine M of each ion:
slide28
Solution Stoichiometry
  • Incorporating Stoichiometry, road maps, with new soln. info.
  • Use M, molarity: mol , L as a conversion factor between moles and Liters
          • L mol
  • Never use 22.4 L . This is for gases only!!
        • mol
  • Many types of problems . . .
    • Always start by writing a balanced equation
    • Make a road map
    • Write givens and unknown

Jayhawk says: 22.4 L

is for gases only!!

slide29
Solution Stoichiometry

1.0 L of 0.120 M calcium nitrate reacts with 3.0 L 0.050 M sodium chromate. What mass of the precipitate will form?

  • Rxn:
  • Net Ionic:
  • Road Map:
  • Stoich:

Jayhawk says: This is

a limiting reactant

problem. Remember

those?!!

slide30
Solution Stoichiometry

What volume of 2.50 M soln of silver nitrate is needed to completely precipitate out 4.2 g of silver chloride?

  • Rxn:
  • Net Ionic:
  • Road Map:
  • Stoich:

Jayhawk says: Don’t

Forget, TEST

Next Class!!

slide31
Solution Stoichiometry

Ammonium phosphate and calcium chloride react. 0.15 g of the ppt forms from excess (NH4)3PO4 and 416 mL of a CaCl2 soln. What must have been the [ ], in M of the CaCl2 soln?

  • Rxn:
  • Net Ionic:
  • Road Map:
  • Stoich:

Jayhawk says: Study,

Study, Study!!

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