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Endocrine System. Supplementary slides Biol 384N. INTERCELLULAR COMMUNICATION. Light Sound Smell Taste Touch. Other Brain Centers. Hippocampus. Sense Organs. Nervous System. [-]. Stimuli. [-]. [-]. Hypothalamus. Pituitary. [-]. [-]. Thyroid. Endocrine System. Nerves of the

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endocrine system

Endocrine System

Supplementary slides

Biol 384N

slide2

INTERCELLULAR COMMUNICATION

Light

Sound

Smell

Taste

Touch

Other Brain

Centers

Hippocampus

Sense Organs

Nervous System

[-]

Stimuli

[-]

[-]

Hypothalamus

Pituitary

[-]

[-]

Thyroid

Endocrine System

Nerves of the

CNS and ANS

Gonads

Adrenal

Cortex

[-]

Thymus

Gland

Glucocorticoids

Immune System

Other Immune

System

Centers

Thymosin

From thymus

[+]

Interleukin-1

slide3

Some Endocrine System Definitions

A. Endocrine glands are ductless glands that release a product into the bloodstream for transport to body targets

B. Exocrine glands (not shown) release their products through ducts onto the body surface or into the lumen of an organ

slide4

Some Endocrine System Definitions (continued)

C. Hormones are chemical signals produced by an endocrine gland that act at some distance from the gland

D. Targets are organs, tissues or cells capable of responding to the hormone due to the presence of a receptor that binds the hormone

slide5

Mechanism of Hormone Action – A. Gene Activation

1. This example is lipid soluble hormones (ex. Steroids)

How can two different targets exhibit two different responses to the same hormone?

2. Response is slow (1 to many hours)

3. steps

slide6

Mechanism of Hormone Action – B. Second Messengers

1. Protein and other hormones that cannot pass the plasma membrane

2. Rapid response, within minutes

3. steps

slide7

Example of Negative Feedback Regulation in the Endocrine System – insulin’s control of blood glucose levels

3. Insulin secreting cells in the pancreas (in Islets of Langerhans) sense high glucose levels (i.e. serve as the sensor) and release insulin (i.e. serve as the central processor and send a chemical signal to body)

1. Eating due to low blood glucose/hunger leads to digestion and glucose absorption

2. Blood glucose (controlled variable) is elevated

4. Most body cellstake up glucose in response to insulin binding, serve as targets for the hormone and thus as effectors

5. Blood glucose levels return to normal and insulin release stops

Fig. 26.7

types of d abet e s
Types of dıabetes
  • Type 1:insulin dependentdiabetes
  • (IDDM)
  • Body stops producing insulin, produces less to regulate blood glucoselevel
types of d abet e s1
Types of dıabetes
  • Type 2 :non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
  • (NIDDM)
  • Body not able use insulin secreted by pancreas
causes of d abet e s
Causes ofdıabetes
  • Genetic factors
  • Stress and anxiety
  • High carbohydrate diet (fast carbs)
  • Obesity
  • Nutritional deficiency
  • Less physical activity or lack of exercise