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Respiratory tract pathology. Premed 2 Pathophysiology. Common Upper respiratory tract Disorders. Acute rhinitis -common cold -adenovirus Allergic rhinitis -type I hypersensitivity reaction -mast cells, basophils Bacterial infection -superimposed infection

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respiratory tract pathology

Respiratory tract pathology

Premed 2


common upper respiratory tract disorders
Common Upper respiratory tract Disorders
  • Acute rhinitis

-common cold


  • Allergic rhinitis

-type I hypersensitivity reaction

-mast cells, basophils

  • Bacterial infection

-superimposed infection

-common bacteria: Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Hemophilus


-inflammation of the paranasal sinuses

  • Laryngitis

-edema, inflammation, hoarseness

  • Acute epiglotitis

-severe, children

-Hemophilus influenzae

Acute laryngotracheobronchitis


-inflammation of the larynx, trachea and epiglottis

-viral infection

malignancies of the urt
Malignancies of the URT
  • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

-SEA and Africa

-Epstein-Barr virus

  • Squamous cell carcinoma

-most frequently occurring tumor

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease
  • Airflow obstruction
  • Decrease in 1-minute forced expiratory volume
  • Increased/normal forced vital capacity
  • Bronchial asthma
  • Chronic bronchitis
  • Pulmonary emphysema
  • Bronchiectasis
bronchial asthma
Bronchial asthma
  • Episodes of dyspnea
  • Wheezing on expiration
  • Smooth muscle hypertrophy
  • Hyperplasia of the bronchial submucosal glands and goblet cells
  • Viscid mucus with Curschmann spirals and Charcot-Leyden crystals
chronic bronchitis
Chronic bronchitis
  • Productive cough that occurs for 3 consecutive months in 2 consecutive years
  • Hyperplasia of the bronchial submucosal glandsincreased Reid index
  • Reid index: ratio of the thickness of the gland layer to that of the bronchial wall
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Air pollution
  • Infection
  • Complication: cor pulmonale
  • Dilatation of the air spaces
  • Destruction of the alveolar walls
  • Lack of elastic recoil
  • Increased antero-posterior diameter of the chest
  • Hypoxia, cyanosis, respiratory acidosis
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Hereditary alpha-antitrypsin deficiency
  • Permanent abnormal bronchial dilatation
  • Chronic infection
  • Inflammation and necrosis of the bronchial wall
  • Copious pururlent sputum
  • Hemoptysis
  • Lung abscess
Predisposing factor:

-bronchial tumor

-Kartagener syndrome: sinusitis, bronchiectasis, situs inversus

respiratory distress syndrome
Respiratory Distress Syndrome
  • Surfactant
    • decreases the surface tension of the alveoli
    • needed for alveoli to fill with air and expand (compliance)
  • Infant respiratory distress syndrome (hyaline membrane disease)
  • Adult respiratory distress syndrome
neonatal respiratory distress syndrome
Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome
  • Hyaline membrane disease
  • Most common cause of death in premature infants
  • Dyspnea, cyanosis, tachynea after birth
  • Deficiency of surfactant: dipalmitoyl lecithin; from type II pneumocytes
  • Predisposing factors


maternal diabetes

caesarean section

  • Anthracosis: carbon dust
  • Coal worker’s pneumoconiosis: coal dust
  • Silicosis: free silica dust
  • Asbestosis: asbestos fibers  ferruginous bodies

-brochogenic carcinoma

-malignant mesothelioma

bronchogenic carcinoma
Bronchogenic carcinoma
  • Directly proportional to the number of cigarettes smoked daily and the number of years
  • Air pollution
  • Radiation: radium, uranium
  • Asbestos
  • Nickel, chromates
bronchogenic carcinoma1
Bronchogenic carcinoma
  • 5-year survival rate: 10 %
  • Cough


bronchial obstruction

  • Local extension: pleura, pericardium, ribs