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Education Reform and School Climate. I. Early Interventions. Head Start. A federally funded program in the 1960’s targeted toward at-risk preschoolers. Designed to prevent generic, negative outcomes in adolescents and adulthood.

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head start
Head Start
  • A federally funded program in the 1960’s targeted toward at-risk preschoolers. Designed to prevent generic, negative outcomes in adolescents and adulthood.
  • Short term: Better vocabulary, math and writing skills, and social skills than non-program disadvantaged kids.
  • Long-term: More likely to complete high school and college. Less likely to be arrested or charged with a crime (Ludwig & Phillips, 2007).
  • Cost effectiveness studies: Society can save 7.16 dollars of future costs for every dollar spent on prevention.
the high scope perry preschool project
The High/Scope Perry Preschool Project
  • Often considered a variant of Head Start.
  •  Components
    • Emphasis on active learning.
    • Small class size.
    • Interface with children’s parents.
    • Like Head Start, curriculum extends beyond educational concerns.
the high scope perry preschool project cont

Longitudinal study of 123, low-income, AA children three to four years-old.

Initial data collection between 1962 and 1967.

Random assignment to program or control group.

The High/Scope Perry Preschool Project (cont)
school violence causes eisenbraun 2007
School Violence: Causes(Eisenbraun, 2007)
  • Personal: high testosterone, low serotonin, gender, drug use, threats of violence, & bullying.
  • Family: Abuse or neglect, inconsistently observed limits, rigidity or over-control.
  • School: Poor school climate or fit, school size, policy responses to violence.
  • Social: poverty, discrimination, gun availability, media violence.
violence in the media
Violence in the media
  • What portion of young kids view intensely violent media images?
    • Dartmouth study in 2002.
violence in the media cont
Violence in the media (cont)
  • Is there a relation between heavy viewing and violence?
    • Merits of different designs:
    • Experimental:
      • Bandura and the Bobo dolls in the 1960s.
      • Boyatis et al., 1995.
violence in the media cont1
Violence in the media (cont)
  • Longitudinal:
    • Eron, et al. (1972).
    • Huesmann et al. (2003) replication.
  • Meta-analyses.
    • Hearold (1986).
violence in the media conclusions
Violence in the Media—Conclusions
  • The magnitude of the effect of media on violent behavior depends on:
    • Audience characteristics (Grimes, et al. 2004).
    • Media attributes
      • Images that are more realistic, legitimized, and lack of emphasis on the pain and suffering the victim are seen stronger predictors of violent behavior.
school violence prevention
School Violence Prevention.
  • Warning Signs (APA).
  • Positive Action (PA).
    • Flay & Alfred (2003).
dropping out
Dropping Out
  • See Handouts
education reform and school climate3

Education Reform and School Climate

IV. Prejudice in the Schools

the contact hypothesis cook 1985
The Contact Hypothesis (Cook, 1985).
  • Contact reduces negative attitudes under certain conditions.
  • Contact with diverse groups is associated with more favorable attitudes towards these groups (e.g., Molina and Wittig, 2006).
the jigsaw method
The Jigsaw Method
  • Is a cooperative learning technique developed in the 1970’s by Elliot Aaronson to reduce prejudice in the schools. 
  • Outcomes: