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Chapter 9. Attitudes, Emotions, & Work. Mel Curtis/Getty Images. Module 9.1: Job Satisfaction. Job satisfaction Positive attitude or emotional state resulting from appraisal of one’s job. Job Satisfaction – Brief History. Early period of job satisfaction research

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chapter 9
Chapter 9

Attitudes, Emotions, & Work

Mel Curtis/Getty Images

module 9 1 job satisfaction
Module 9.1: Job Satisfaction
  • Job satisfaction
    • Positive attitude or emotional state resulting from appraisal of one’s job
job satisfaction brief history
Job Satisfaction – Brief History
  • Early period of job satisfaction research
      • Found both job-related & individual difference variables might influence job satisfaction
      • Hawthorne effect
        • Change in behavior or attitudes that was the simple result of increased attention
history an evolution
History: An evolution
  • Porter & Lawler proposed overall job satisfaction was result of various calculations individuals made regarding what they believed they deserved from their job
  • Included elements of VIE & equity theory
model of determinants of satisfaction
Model of Determinants of Satisfaction

Figure 9.1

Model of the Determinants

of Satisfaction

Source: Lawler (1973).

an evolution cont d
An Evolution (cont'd)
  • Value theory (Locke, 1976)
    • Relative importance of particular job aspect to a given worker influenced range of that worker’s response to it
  • Opponent process theory (Landy, 1978)
    • Every emotional reaction is accompanied by an opposing emotional reaction
measurement of job satisfaction overall vs facet satisfaction
Measurement of Job SatisfactionOverall vs. Facet Satisfaction
  • Overall satisfaction
      • Results either from mathematically combining scores based on satisfaction or a single overall evaluative rating of the job
  • Facet satisfaction
      • Information related to specific elements of job satisfaction
faces scale
Faces Scale

Figure 9.4

satisfaction questionnaires
Satisfaction Questionnaires
  • Job Descriptive Index (JDI)
      • Assesses satisfaction with work itself, supervision, people, pay, & promotion
      • Heavily researched but tends to be lengthy
  • Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ)
      • Calculates “extrinsic” & “intrinsic” satisfaction scores
  • Job Satisfaction Scale(JSS) Spector
      • Nine facets
module 9 2 moods emotions attitudes behavior
Module 9.2: Moods, Emotions, Attitudes, & Behavior
  • Alternative forms of work satisfaction
    • Progressive work satisfaction
    • Stabilized work satisfaction
    • Resigned work satisfaction
    • Pseudo-work satisfaction
    • Constructive work dissatisfaction
    • Fixated work dissatisfaction
alternative forms of satisfaction cont d
Alternative Forms of Satisfaction (cont'd)
  • Resigned work satisfaction & constructive work dissatisfaction are most salient for organizations
  • Those 2 dimensions are most appropriate to concentrate on in any attempts at organizational change
satisfaction vs mood vs emotion
Satisfaction vs. Mood vs. Emotion
  • Mood
    • Generalized feeling not identified with a particular stimulus & not sufficiently intense to interrupt ongoing thought processes
  • Emotion
    • Normally associated with specific events or occurrences that are intense enough to disrupt thought processes
    • ? Which is more enduring?
distinctions among emotional constructs
Distinctions AmongEmotional Constructs

Figure 9.5

Distinctions Among

Emotional Constructs

Source: Adapted from

Weiss (2002).

affect circumplex
Affect Circumplex

Figure 9.6

Affect Circumplex

Source: Adapted from

Weiss (2002).

emotion cont d
Emotion (cont'd)
  • Process emotions
    • Result from consideration of tasks one is currently doing
  • Prospective emotions
    • Result from consideration of tasks one anticipates doing
  • Retrospective emotions
    • Result from consideration of tasks one has already completed
dispositions affectivity
Dispositions & Affectivity
  • Negative affectivity (NA)
    • Often referred to as neuroticism
    • Individuals prone to experience diverse array of negative mood states
  • Positive affectivity (PA)
    • Often referred to as extraversion
    • Individuals prone to describe themselves as cheerful, enthusiastic, confident, active, & energetic
  • Personality characteristics likely to influence moods, but not necessarily discrete emotions
genetics job satisfaction
Genetics & Job Satisfaction
  • In a 1986 study, disposition in adolescence predicted job satisfaction as long as 50 years later
  • Considerably more research is necessary

M. Freeman/PhotoLink/Getty Images

core evaluations
Core Evaluations
  • Assessments individuals make of their circumstances
  • Include self-esteem, self-efficacy, & LOC

How do they differ?

  • Have effects on both job & life satisfaction
concept of commitment
Concept of Commitment

Psychological & emotional attachment an individual feels to a relationship, organization, goal, or occupation

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forms of commitment
Forms of Commitment
  • Affective commitment
    • Emotional attachment to an organization
  • Continuance commitment
    • Perceived cost of leaving the organization
  • Normative commitment
    • Obligation to remain in the organization
      • Which is most important for work motivation? Why?
individual difference variables commitment
Individual Difference Variables & Commitment
  • Absenteeism & turnover can only be understood when considering multiple forms of commitment & multiple foundations for those commitments
        • Why do you think that job satisfaction is not a very good predictor of absenteeism and turnover?
  • Job imbeddedness
  • Hobo syndrome
withdrawal behaviors
Withdrawal Behaviors
  • Work withdrawal
    • Attempt to withdraw from work but maintain ties to organization & work role (includes lateness & absenteeism)
  • Job withdrawal
    • Willingness to sever ties to organization & work role (includes intentions to quit or retire)
  • Progression hypothesis
module 9 3 related topics
Module 9.3: Related Topics
  • Job loss
    • Reduces income & daily variety
    • Suspension of typical goal setting guiding day-to-day activity
    • Fewer decisions to make
    • New skills not developed & old skills atrophy
    • Social relationships can change radically
telecommuting
Telecommuting
  • Accomplishing work tasks from distant location using electronic communications
  • # telecommuters will continue to rise
  • For many telecommuters, strategic planning skills & self-reported productivity increase
  • Higher satisfaction also reported
telecommuting cont d
Telecommuting (cont’d)
  • Possible negative effects
    • Worker alienation
    • Loss of important sense of identity
    • Promotion less likely
    • Rapid disillusionment with lack of promotional opportunities
work family balance
Work-Family Balance
  • Research investigating whether satisfaction one experiences at work is in part affected by satisfaction one experiences in non-work & vice versa
  • Negative influences on work-family balance
    • Electronically enhanced communications
    • Prevalence of multiple roles

PhotoDisc/Getty Images

work related attitudes emotions from cross cultural perspective
Work-Related Attitudes & Emotions From Cross-Cultural Perspective
  • Individualism & job satisfaction “+” correlated in some cultures, while collectivism & job satisfaction “+” correlated in other cultures
  • Degree of “fit” related to emotional reactions to work & subsequent work behaviors
    • Important for multinational organizations to consider
possible connection between motivation emotion
Possible Connection Between Motivation & Emotion
  • People motivated to engage in activities that have some level of unpredictability in order to have some sort of emotional experience
  • People seek positive emotional experiences & set reasonably difficult goals that are likely achievable