vegetation index vi n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Vegetation Index (VI) PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Vegetation Index (VI)

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 108

Vegetation Index (VI) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 181 Views
  • Uploaded on

Vegetation Index (VI). Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Today’s Goal. Rancher’s in New Mexico need an insurance program for their grazing and haying perils RMA is committed to meeting those needs Limited options Pros and Cons to both programs (RI/VI)

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Vegetation Index (VI)' - ena


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
vegetation index vi

Vegetation Index (VI)

Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)

today s goal
Today’s Goal
  • Rancher’s in New Mexico need an insurance program for their grazing and haying perils
  • RMA is committed to meeting those needs
  • Limited options
  • Pros and Cons to both programs (RI/VI)
  • Can program improvements be implemented for VI
    • Limit available Index Intervals to assure production for the year is captured?
    • What time periods should be offered?
  • Do producers prefer RI?
where we are today
Where we are today?
  • Ten Index Intervals during a year
    • ONLY Four intervals have been released to date
      • Latest interval released to date: April-June
    • First three intervals covered winter and early spring months that normally have very low NDVI readings as plants are dormant or beginning to green up
    • Above average biomass carry over from 2010
  • Drought conditions in New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, etc. with catastrophic impacts
    • Impacts to the industry as a whole
history
History
  • The Agricultural Risk Protection Act of 2000 (ARPA) mandates programs to cover pasture and rangeland
    • Vegetation Index - Pasture, Rangeland, Forage (VI-PRF)
    • Rainfall Index - Pasture, Rangeland, Forage (RI-PRF)
challenges prf
Challenges – PRF
  • Pasture, Rangeland, Forage Crop
    • Various plant species
    • Timing of plant growth
    • Lack of individual/industry data
    • Vast range of management practices across the industry
    • Publicly announced prices not available
    • Crop continuously harvested via livestock
history1
History
  • Statement of Objectives issued by RMA
    • Contractors put together ideas and proposals
      • 16 proposals received
      • All were indexes
        • Rainfall Index
        • Vegetation Index
  • RMA awarded four contracts
    • 2 were Rainfall Indexes
    • 2 were Vegetation Indexes
    • 2 were implemented
fact or fiction
Fact or Fiction

Vegetation Index utilizes remote sensing measures for the grid.

  • All biomass in a grid is included
    • Does not measure grass only
    • Deviation of normal for the interval (1989 to 2009)

THIS IS NOT DROUGHT INSURANCE (Multi Peril)

  • RMA does not use the term drought for the Vegetation Index program nor for the Rainfall Index program
program overview
Program Overview

Area Plan of insurance

  • Not individual coverage
  • Losses are area based, not producer based
  • Index – based on NDVI (a proxy for vegetation biomass)
    • Not measuring actual individual production
  • No loss adjustments, records, etc.
  • More timely payments
  • Does not reward poor management practices
program overview1
Program Overview
  • Rating
    • Each grid, index interval, and coverage level is individually rated
        • Encourages producers to select a scenario that best mitigates their operation/production risks
        • Critical that producers select the correct interval for RI or VI
    • Encourage producers to view rates, BUT that should not be the determining factor in selecting which index interval(s) to insure.
program overview2
Program Overview
  • Index Intervals
    • Minimizes dependency on subjective pre-determined biomass growing seasons
      • Elevation, climate, etc. found within an area
    • Maintains consistency across the country
      • Allows for regional and local variance
      • Allows individual freedom to select appropriate intervals
program overview vi
Program Overview - VI
  • Vegetation Index Program
    • Area Based Plan
      • Approximately 8 x 8 km grid vs. county
    • Utilizes satellite remote sensing data
      • Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)
    • Deviation from Normal: 1989 to 2009, captures multiple perils
    • Review of historical indices and how they relate to your ranch is critical
    • Critical that peak of growing season is insured and not time periods outside those months
grid overview vi
Grid Overview – VI
  • Area of insurance = 8 x 8 km(~ 4.9 x 4.9 miles)
program overview vi ri
Program Overview – VI (&RI)
  • Coverage Levels
    • Percentages available: 90, 85, 80, 75, and 70
    • Consistent with other area programs
  • Catastrophic Risk Protection (CAT)
    • Not currently available
    • Producers are eligible for NAP coverage
program overview3
Program Overview
  • Not required to insure 100% of acreage
      • Forage utilized in the annual grazing or hay cycle can be insured without insuring all acreage
      • All acres within a property may not be productive, e.g., rocky areas, submerged areas
      • Provides additional flexibility for the rancher to design the coverage to their specific needs
      • Because the program is an area plan, there is no opportunity to ‘move’ production
        • Producers cannot affect trigger
index definitions
Index Definitions
  • Expected Grid Index:Based on the historical mean accumulated NDVI values, by Index Interval, expressed as a percentage; EGI = 100
  • Final Grid Index:Based on the current NDVI values for each Index Interval
    • If current data represents a 40% reduction, then FGI = 60
  • Trigger Grid Index: The selected coverage level multiplied by the Expected Grid Index
    • i.e. - Coverage Level = 85; then Trigger Grid Index = 85
    • If the final grid index falls below the trigger grid index, the insured may be due an indemnity
program overview4
Program Overview
  • Payment Calculations
    • The only insurable cause of loss is when the final grid index value is less than the trigger grid index, and only when caused by a natural occurrence
      • If the cause is determined by FCIC to be an act of man or intentional, a method of assigning the Vegetation Index value from the nearest unaffected grid will be used to establish a final grid index value for the grid affected
2011 changes filed 6 30 2010
2011 Changes: Filed 6/30/2010
  • Addition of Total Loss Factor (VI ONLY)
    • Accelerates the level of loss at which the maximum indemnity amount would be made – allows producers to obtain 100% payouts more frequently
  • VI Program expanded to balance of counties in Idaho, Oregon and South Dakota and all counties in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah

NO CHANGES ARE MADE TO THE PROGRAM AFTER THE CONTRACT CHANGE DATE (CCD) (6/30)

vi program overview
VI – Program Overview

Index Intervals

  • Crop Year divided into 10, 3-month index intervals
    • Must select at least one interval
    • Currently can select up to 4 intervals
  • Crop Practice = Index Interval
  • Ability for producers to manage appropriate timing risks
    • Correlate to individual growth patterns and production seasons
  • The 3-month intervals provide for greater reaction to biomass reduction events vs. a yearly average
technology vi 2011
Technology – VI (2011)
  • USGS – EROS Data:
  • Historical Data can be retrieved from:
    • http://edcsns17.cr.usgs.gov/EarthExplorer/
      • Select the AVHRR composites
  • Bi-weekly composite –
    • http://ivm.cr.usgs.gov/
      • NDVI is band 6 in the binary image
      • Information about the data http://ivm.cr.usgs.gov/Metadata.doc
  • NDVI images are processed by the EROS data center and are not further processed by RMA
characteristics of the ndvi used for prf
Characteristics of the NDVI used for PRF
  • Data from AVHRR satellite are processed by USGS EROS and made available from 1989 to present.
  • AHVRR data is collected daily, however the product used is the 14-day maximum NDVI composite image
  • Resolution of the data is 1-km, but aggregated to 8 km for the group insurance.
data processing for prf vegetation index
Data Processing for PRF Vegetation Index
  • NDVI data are acquired from EROS Data Center every 14 days
  • At the end of each indexing interval, the NDVI images are staged for the insurance indexing. The data are screened to remove negative NDVI values (clouds, water, etc).
  • Negative NDVI values are not used in the index calculations
vegetation index calculations
Vegetation Index Calculations
  • Calculation of the Final Grid Index has 3 stages:
    • Calculation of the daily index values
    • Averaging the daily index to calculate the interval index
    • Standardizing the current interval index to the long-term average of the historical interval indices
daily index calculations
Daily Index Calculations
  • A daily vegetation condition index is calculated for each grid

where:

Daily Index i= daily vegetation condition index for day i

NDVIi= NDVI for day i

NDVImini= the minimum NDVI across all years for day i

NDVImaxi= the maximum NDVI across all years for day i

Note: 200 is an arbitrary scalar

. . . adapted from Kogan (1990, 1995) Vegetation Condition Index

daily index calculation
Daily Index Calculation

Historical Maximum NDVIon June 1

NDVI on June 1, 2011

Daily Index

for June 1=

49.7

Historical Minimum NDVIon June 1

daily index calculation1
Daily Index Calculation
  • The Daily Index equation is basically answering the question of “How does today’s vegetation compare to the “best” and the “worst” conditions for this day historically as seen by the satellite.
  • Daily Index values near zero indicate relatively poor condition of the vegetation compared to the history for that day
    • Does not mean that no vegetation is present!
    • So, if the “worst” day historically for a given day had evergreen vegetation present such as cholla, creosote bush, and juniper, then this “greenness” does not influence the daily vegetation condition index because that “greenness” is the minimum value.
  • High values indicate relatively good vegetation condition compared to the history on that day
final grid index calculation
Final Grid Index Calculation
  • For each interval, the daily index values are averaged for the interval of interest to calculate the Index Interval.
  • The Final Grid Index is then calculated by dividing the Index Interval by the long-term average of the historical indices for the interval in question.
ndvi conditions december 2010
NDVI Conditions – December 2010
  • NDVI Image for December 14 – 28, 2010
  • EROS Data Center
  • Indicates the gradation of greenness
  • across New Mexico
  • Greener areas indicate higher levels of
  • photosynthesizing leaf area
  • NDVI Departure from Long-Term Average
  • US Forest Service - Wildland Fire Assessment
  • System
  • Compares current NDVI to long-term average
  • Greener areas indicate NDVI is greater than
  • long term average.
  • Yellow to Red areas indicate the opposite
ndvi conditions february 2011
NDVI Conditions – February 2011

NDVI Image for February 8 to 21, 2011

EROS Data Center

Green area has declined compared to December

NDVI Departure from Long-Term Average – Feb 21

US Forest Service - Wildland Fire Assessment System

Majority of New Mexico for this period is showing above average NDVI conditions

Some of the forested areas showing below average conditions

ndvi conditions april 2011
NDVI Conditions – April, 2011

NDVI Image for April 5 to 18, 2011

EROS Data Center

NDVI Departure from Long-Term Average – April 18

US Forest Service - Wildland Fire Assessment System

Majority of New Mexico for this period is showing average to above average NDVI conditions

Eastern New Mexico is showing declining NDVI conditions

ndvi conditions june 2011
NDVI Conditions – June 2011

NDVI Image for May 31 to Jun 13, 2011

EROS Data Center

NDVI Departure from Long-Term Average – June 13

US Forest Service - Wildland Fire Assessment System

Majority of New Mexico for this period is showing below average NDVI conditions

Eastern New Mexico is showing large departures from average

ndvi conditions august 2011
NDVI Conditions – August 2011

NDVI Image for August 8 to 23, 2011

EROS Data Center

NDVI Departure from Long-Term Average – August 1

US Forest Service - Wildland Fire Assessment System

Majority of New Mexico for this period is showing below average NDVI conditions

slide35

Interval 647

Mar 1 to May 31

Final Index = 159.7

Interval 646

Feb 1 to Apr 30

Final Index = 174.6

Interval 645

Jan 1 to Mar 31

Final Index = 155.1

Interval 649

May 1 to July 31

Final Index = 40.95

Interval 648

Apr 1 to Jun 30

Final Index = 102.2

90%

85%

80%

75%

70%

slide37

Interval 645

Jan 1 to Mar 31

Final Index = 160.5

Interval 646

Feb 1 to Apr 30

Final Index = 165.58

Interval 647

Mar 1 to May 31

Final Index = 144.8

Interval 649

May 1 to July 31

Final Index = 53.61

Interval 648

Apr 1 to Jun 30

Final Index = 9.06

90%

85%

80%

75%

70%

slide39

Interval 645

Jan 1 to Mar 31

Final Index = 170.0

Interval 646

Feb 1 to Apr 30

Final Index = 152.2

Interval 647

Mar 1 to May 31

Final Index = 121.9

Interval 649

May 1 to July 31

Final Index = 38.8

Interval 648

Apr 1 to Jun 30

Final Index = 77.38

90%

85%

80%

75%

70%

slide41

Interval 645

Jan 1 to Mar 31

Final Index = 165.05

Interval 646

Feb 1 to Apr 30

Final Index = 145.0

Interval 647

Mar 1 to May 31

Final Index = 128.9

Interval 649

May 1 to July 31

Final Index = 75.3

Interval 648

Apr 1 to Jun 30

Final Index = 106.4

90%

85%

80%

75%

70%

program overview ri
Program Overview - RI
  • Rainfall Index Program
    • Area Based Plan
      • 0.25 degree grid vs. county
    • Utilizes NOAA daily reported weather data
      • NOAA: Climate Prediction Center (CPC)
    • Deviation from Normal: 1948 to 2009
    • Review of historical indices and how they relate to your ranch is critical
    • Critical that critical precipitation periods are insured and not time periods outside those months
program overview ri1
Program Overview - RI
  • Crop Year divided into 11, 2-month index intervals
    • Must select at least two intervals
    • Currently can select up to 6 intervals
  • Crop Practice = Index Interval
  • Ability for producers to manage appropriate timing risks
  • The 2-month intervals provide for greater reaction to biomass reduction events vs. a yearly average
grid overview ri
Grid Overview - RI
  • Area of insurance = 0.25o grids
technology ri
Technology - RI
  • NOAA CPC data
  • NOAA wants to use the best data available for their programs too
  • NOAA rainfall data based on the Optimal Interpolation (OI) methodology
    • Historical data (1948 to 2006) currently can be retrieved from NOAA at the following website: ftp://ftp.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/precip/CPC_UNI_PRCP/GAUGE_CONUS/V1.0/
    • Near real-time data (2006 to present) is currently accessed from ftp://ftp.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/precip/CPC_UNI_PRCP/GAUGE_CONUS/RT/
technology ri1
Technology - RI
  • For 2011 results: the historical period for calculating the long term average is Jan.1, 1948 through Dec. 31, 2009
  • Precipitation is interpolated to the grid and not measured within a grid
    • Producers MUST understand that even if there is a weather station that reports daily to NOAA CPC inside their grid, the results will NOT equal that weather station
  • Similar to NASS data used for GRP crop policies
    • Producers reporting to NASS – unknown
    • Surveys NASS eliminates in their quality control – unknown
what we hear ri
What we hear - RI
  • Rancher’s believe RMA is using a single point specific weather station
  • Rancher’s provide NWS, NCDC, WFO, or other NOAA/USGS/NASA data sets, airport weather reports, etc.
  • Rancher’s use their own rain gauges
  • Rancher’s believe grid results will always reflect exact conditions on their ranch
  • Purpose: to provide general rainfall conditions in a grid, not measure a single gauge
nap and prf clarification
NAP and PRF Clarification

FSA NAP Coverage and RMA PRF Pilot Insurance Program Coverage Policy

  • Producers can obtain both a PRF policy (VI or RI as applicable) and NAP coverage on the same acres for the same intended use
  • Eligible to earn a PRF indemnity payment and NAP benefit on the same acres for the same intended use
web based tools
Web Based Tools

www.rma.usda.gov

historical indices and dst
Historical Indices and DST
  • Actuarial information will not change
    • Actual Final Grid Index for past years
  • Tools are designed to be fluid and will change
    • Updated annually
    • Final Grid Index values will reflect the change in average
summary technology questions ri vi
Summary:Technology & Questions– RI & VI
  • Critical that agents and producers understand the Historical and Decision Support Tools
    • Must spend time reviewing the historical records and comparing those results to past production experienced by the producer – FOCUS MUST BE ON GROWING SEASON
  • Decision to purchase MUST be based on an analysis comparing the historical results of the grid to a producer’s experience for past years’ production
  • As with any area plan – results may not track 100% of the time
growing seasons
Growing Seasons
  • It all comes back to growing seasons!
  • When is grass normally grown in a specific area?
  • Many policies purchased in intervals that may not be conducive to optimum forage growth
  • Does NRCS ecological site information help?
growing seasons nrcs example
Growing Seasons – NRCS Example
  • Ecological Site Characteristics
  • Site Name: Limestone Hills (R070CY107NM)
  • Major Land Resource Area:
    • 070C-Central New Mexico Highlands
    • HCPC Mixed grassland/shrubland with scattered trees
growing seasons nrcs example1
Growing Seasons – NRCS Example
  • Ecological Site Characteristics
  • Site Name: Sandy Plains (R070BY055NM)
  • Major Land Resource Area:
    • 070B-Upper Pecos River Valley
    • HCPC Warm-season tall and mid-grassland mixed with shrubs and forbs
growing seasons nrcs example2
Growing Seasons – NRCS Example
  • Ecological Site Characteristics
  • Site Name: Shallow Upland(R070AY003NM)
  • Major Land Resource Area:
    • 070A-Canadian River Plains and Valleys
    • HCPC Mid-grassland with minor components of shrubs and forbs
growing seasons nrcs example3
Growing Seasons – NRCS Example
  • Ecological Site Characteristics
  • Site Name: Pine Grassland (R039XA012NM)
  • Major Land Resource Area:
    • 039-Arizona and New Mexico Mountains
    • HCPC Grassland with ponderosa pine overstory and scattered forbs
growing seasons nrcs example4
Growing Seasons – NRCS Example
  • Ecological Site Characteristics
  • Site Name: Draw (R042XC008NM)
  • Major Land Resource Area:
    • 042-Southern Desertic Basins, Plains, and Mountains
    • State Containing Historic Plant Community Swale Type
growing seasons1
Growing Seasons
  • 2011 Insurance Experience
    • Jan-Mar (645): 14% of acres
    • Feb-Apr (646): 03% of acres
    • Mar-May (647): 03% of acres
    • Apr-Jun (648): 29% of acres
    • May-Jul (649): 06% of acres
    • Jun-Aug (650): 08% of acres
    • Jul-Sep (651): 24% of acres
    • Aug-Oct (652): 03% of acres
    • Sep-Nov (653): 01% of acres
    • Oct-Dec (654): 09% of acres
ri 2010 intervals

RI – 2010 Intervals

What preceded 2011?

2010 jan feb

RI

2010 Jan/Feb

2010 Feb/Mar

2010 mar apr

RI

2010 Mar/Apr

2010 Apr/May

2010 may jun

RI

2010 May/Jun

2010 Jun/Jul

2010 jul aug

RI

2010 Jul/Aug

2010 Aug/Sep

2010 sep oct

RI

2010 Sep/Oct

2010 Oct/Nov

2011 jan feb

RI

2011 Jan/Feb

2011 Feb/Mar

2011 mar apr

RI

2011 Mar/Apr

2011 Apr/May

2011 may jun

RI

2011 May/Jun

2011 Jun/Jul

vi 2011 period 645

VI – 2011 Period 645

January, February, March Interval -Results Released

vi 2011 period 646

VI – 2011 Period 646

February, March, April Interval -Results Released

vi 2011 period 647

VI – 2011 Period 647

March, April, May Interval -Results Released

vi 2011 period 648

VI – 2011 Period 648

April, May, June Interval -Results Released

vi 2011 period 649

VI – 2011 Period 649

May, June, July Interval

vi 2011 period 650

VI – 2011 Period 650

June, July, August Interval

vi vs ri an example 01
VI vs. RI? an example 01
  • Roosevelt County (Grid 143144): 90% CL: 150% PF
    • Acres: 1,000
    • Dollar amount of protection/ac: $10.06
    • Premium:
      • RI: $1,260
      • VI: $1,093
    • Indemnity:
      • RI: $7,421
        • Grid: 16607
        • Intervals: Feb-Mar (FIV: 17.9); Apr-May (FIV: 01.6); Jun-Jul (FIV: 51.3)
      • VI: $10,060 (100% payment)
        • Interval: May-Jul (FIV: 18.9) (Note: 650 FIV: ~38.7)
vi vs ri an example 02
VI vs. RI? an example 02
  • Torrance County (Grid 135650): 90% CL: 150% PF
    • Acres: 1,000
    • Dollar amount of protection/ac: $10.06
    • Premium:
      • RI: $1,141
      • VI: $ 906
    • Indemnity:
      • RI: $7,675
        • Grid: 17496
        • Intervals: Feb-Mar (FIV: 43.8); Apr-May (FIV: 06.6); Jun-Jul (FIV: 13.6)
      • VI: $5,603
        • Interval: May-Jul (FIV: 56.6)(Note: 650 FIV: ~40.5)
vi vs ri an example 03
VI vs. RI? an example 03
  • Lea County (Grid 151175): 90% CL: 150% PF
    • Acres: 1,000
    • Dollar amount of protection/ac: $10.06
    • Premium:
      • RI: $1,354
      • VI: $1,096
    • Indemnity:
      • RI: $9,234
        • Grid: 15406
        • Intervals: Feb-Mar (FIV: 05.3); Apr-May (FIV: 00.0); Jun-Jul (FIV: 16.8)
      • VI: $9,426
        • Interval: May-Jul (FIV: 33.8)(Note: 650 FIV: ~7.6)
vi vs ri an example 04
VI vs. RI? an example 04
  • Harding County (Grid 125917): 90% CL: 150% PF
    • Acres: 1,000
    • Dollar amount of protection/ac: $10.06
    • Premium:
      • RI: $1,131
      • VI: $1,193
    • Indemnity:
      • RI: $3,986
        • Grid: 19004
        • Intervals: Feb-Mar (FIV: 80.8); Apr-May (FIV: 26.5); Jun-Jul (FIV: 55.7)
      • VI: $7,495
        • Interval: May-Jul (FIV: 45.3)(Note: 650 FIV: ~11.9)
vi vs ri an example 05
VI vs. RI? an example 05
  • Union County (Grid 119038): 90% CL: 150% PF
    • Acres: 1,000
    • Dollar amount of protection/ac: $10.06
    • Premium:
      • RI: $967
      • VI: $817
    • Indemnity:
      • RI: $4,023
        • Grid: 20207
        • Intervals: Feb-Mar (FIV: 49.1); Apr-May (FIV: 22.9); Jun-Jul (FIV: 96.2)
      • VI: $10,060 (100% payment)
        • Interval: May-Jul (FIV: 28.6)(Note: 650 FIV: ~20.9)
facts to remember
Facts to Remember
  • Possible to be indemnified for your full guarantee under VI
    • Preliminary results for May, June, and July period would show 100% indemnities in many grids
  • Full guarantees (annual) would be very rare under RI due to the requirement that ranchers must insure more than one interval
  • Dual track processes to assure data is correct prior to releasing results
feedback and suggestions for possible changes
Feedback and Suggestions forPossible changes
  • Index Interval selection (VI product)
    • Need to insure period of MAXIMUM growth
    • Do we need to limit index intervals offered in NM
      • Regional differences?
      • County differences?
      • Elevation influences?
    • Shorten the Index Interval periods from 3 month to 2 months?
    • Masking?
    • Other ideas?
feedback and suggestions for possible changes1
Feedback and Suggestions forPossible changes

Offer Rainfall Index instead of Vegetation Index?

  • Rainfall Index issues to think about
    • Potential arid region issues
      • Could limit available index intervals
    • Spotty rainfall impacts
    • Single peril – lack of rainfall only
  • Vegetation Index issues
    • All biomass – impacts when crops & trees are prevalent in the grid
    • Hitting the growth season