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Teacher Action Research Workshop 4: Data Analysis, Interpretation & Publication. EARCOS Teachers Conference 28-31 March 2012 Donna Kalmbach Phillips, Ph.D. Pacific University, OR USA.

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teacher action research workshop 4 data analysis interpretation publication

Teacher Action ResearchWorkshop 4:Data Analysis, Interpretation & Publication

EARCOS Teachers Conference

28-31 March 2012

Donna Kalmbach Phillips, Ph.D.

Pacific University, OR USA

slide2

“Action research…..requires teachers to be acutely aware of a sense of process, and to refine their perceptions to account for that process…action research raises to a conscious level much of what is already being done by good teachers on an intuitive level. It enables teachers to identify and come to grips with their practice in a human way that is at once supportive and critical.”

McNiff, 2008

slide3

Action Research…

  • Involves a systematic or organized approach to problem-solving
  • Requires active engagement & interaction
  • Insist upon reflection, critical analysis & revolving assessment
  • Analyzes systems of power
  • Deconstructs taken-for-granted assumptions
  • Results in action as a practical outcome
  • Results in transformation
  • Relies upon democratic ethical principles
  • Focuses on a single place of inquiry
slide5

Teacher Action Research: Process Workshops

Trustworthy Action Research Design

Framing the Study

Data Analysis, Interpretation

Discover an Area of

Focus

Criteria for Trustworthiness

Data Analysis

Fundamentals

Develop a critical Question

Research Design

Ongoing Analysis:

Cycle & Strategies

Research Design

Triangulation

Final Data Interpretation

Literature Review

Researcher Dispositions

Going Public

………………………………………………………Critical Questions……………………………………………………………

slide7

“Interpretation is revelation based upon information. But they are entirely different things. However, all interpretation includes information.The chief aim of interpretation is not instruction, but provocation.”

Tilden (1957)

slide8

Data Analysis & Interpretation

rests upon

triangulated, multi-layered

“thick” data

principles of data analysis interpretation analysis
Principles of Data Analysis & InterpretationAnalysis

…..to take apart, to break down or dissect. The act of separating data for the purpose of study; a narrowing of the gaze.

principles of data analysis interpretation analysis1
Principles of Data Analysis & InterpretationAnalysis

What seems to be happening in this data? What is not happening in this data?

What is repeated in this data (words, behaviors, attitudes, occurrences)?

What is surprising, perplexing, disturbing in this data?

What information seems to be missing from the data?

principles of data analysis interpretation synthesize
Principles of Data Analysis & InterpretationSynthesize

…..the act of putting back together again, of integrating pieces; seeing the data set as a whole; changing the lens of inquiry to wide angle.

principles of data analysis interpretation synthesize1
Principles of Data Analysis & InterpretationSynthesize

What patterns emerge across the data? (What are the repeating themes?)

What are the contradictions, dilemmas in the data? What doesn’t seem to fit?

What are the emotional & intellectual reactions to this data?

How does or doesn’t this data answer the CQ?

How are systems functioning in this data?

What material factors are at play?

principles of data analysis interpretation deconstruction
Principles of Data Analysis & InterpretationDeconstruction

…..to check assumptions, consider personal & social context; to put the lens of inquiry down, climb back up the hill to see what we’ve been missing.

principles of data analysis interpretation deconstruction1
Principles of Data Analysis & Interpretation: Deconstruction

1. Study categories of data: what other ways might these be configured and reconfigured?

2. What are the limitations?

3. What personal assumptions, values, beliefs are present in the synthesis?

4. What would other voices say about the synthesis?

5. How are systems functioning in this data?

6. What material factors are at play?

7. What is useful & dangerous?

principles of data analysis interpretation contextualization
Principles of Data Analysis & Interpretation: Contextualization

…..the cultural, social, physical, political context of the data

principles of data analysis interpretation contextualization1
Principles of Data Analysis & Interpretation: Contextualization

How are larger issues, values, political views, systems & structures influencing data interpretation? (Or how should they influence interpretation?)

How is power at work in the study?

Are conclusions mirroring, representative, in conflict with mainstream discourse? What does this mean?

practice note taking note making
Practice:Note Taking/Note Making

Video Clip:

Teacher-Student Writing Conference

  • Directions:
  • Divide paper into two columns
  • Take notes: Focus on what the teacher says & the student’s response
practicing trustworthy action research
Practicing Trustworthy Action Research
  • Directions:
  • Return to note taking/note making.
  • Analyze talk according to Choice Words by Peter Johnston.
  • How does layering analysis with literature make a difference?
  • How is it useful and dangerous?
slide24

Strategies for Organizing Data

&

Analyzing Data

by

Charts

slide25

Organizing & Analyzing by Events

Researcher’s On-going Analysis Journal:

Record thinking (self-reflexivity), questions, connections, perspectives

slide26

Organizing by Literature

Researcher’s On-going Analysis Journal:

Record thinking (self-reflexivity), questions, connections, perspectives

slide29

Charts + Narrative

Researcher’s On-going Analysis Journal:

Record thinking (self-reflexivity), questions, connections, perspectives

slide30

Organizing by Data Type

Researcher’s On-going Analysis Journal:

Record thinking (self-reflexivity), questions, connections, perspectives

slide31

Practice Data Set:

Grade 5

Building Community

the researcher s journal
The Researcher’s Journal

The discussions that followed the classroom meeting were probably the worst overall. Three of the five groups bickered throughout the discussion time. As a result of this, two groups (Mouse “A” and Mouse “B”) had minimal discussion. The Applewhites had no discussion because they could not resolve their intrapersonal conflicts. The Hatchet group was unable to have a discussion because there was only one member present. Dark Hills Divide was the only group having a productive discussion. I asked the counselor to observe The Applewhites group and noted that the environment was so tense that it was impossible to hold a discussion. One member was so bossy that she alienated the other members. Another member was unprepared and distracted the group. The other two members stirred the pot and argued with the other two. The counselor questioned whether the literature circle jobs are too complex and whether the groups are too large. He suggested pairing students up with one task to do – a task that they can be successful at. I am having the same thoughts after witnessing the extreme interpersonal conflicts and off task behaviors. Many of these students cannot get past their bickering to hold a discussion. I was discouraged to find that despite teaching behavior skills, these discussions are usually not a productive use of time for four of the five groups. Once again, I find myself asking, is it the task itself or the lack of behavior skills or something I am not even accounting for that causes the problems? Are the books not engaging? Should I have allowed choice? How do I account for context of these kids’ lives?

weekend break reflective pause the analytic memo
Weekend Break (Reflective Pause):The Analytic Memo
  • Ongoing Analysis with greater emphasis on synthesis, deconstruction, contextualization
  • Formal Data Analysis
  • Completed 2 – 4 times throughout project
why an analytic memo
Why an Analytic Memo?

The analytic memo is a space to…

  • Modify the AR design
  • Recheck & possibly modify CQ
  • To change course if needed
  • To practice trustworthy action research through self-reflexivity, multiple perspectives, and making strong connections
slide35

Process for the Analytic Memo

Read through all organized data, including note taking/note making & research journals

Read with literature at your side

Read for repeating patterns, ideas, themes

Cluster, mind map accordingly

Develop synthesis statements or synthesis questions

slide36

Teacher Talk does not appear to exist in a vacuum: the environment, occasion, assignment, my mood, and the student all can influence my talk (and a student’s response).

critical to the analytic memo
Critical to the Analytic Memo
  • Practice Trustworthiness:
  • Use raw data
  • Employ the expertise of the literature
  • Seek multiple perspectives (critical colleague, students, parents, others)
  • Practice self-reflexivity: pursue significant questions, stay open, resist conclusions
  • Make strong connections
  • Return to Critical Question
slide40

The Analytic Memo:An Excerpt

  • Directions:
  • Read through the memo.
  • Be this teacher-researcher’s critical colleague.
  • What questions do you have for her? What do you want to know more about?
  • Discuss the memo: How does (or doesn’t) it represent trustworthy action research?
data collection ar memo 1
Data Collection/AR Memo 1
  • Data may appear disconnected; unable to write synthesis questions or statements
  • Need to refine CQ
  • Discover gaps in data
  • Need to refine data collection strategies
  • Requires adapting teaching/interventions
data collection ar memo 2
Data Collection/AR Memo 2
  • Data is likely more focused
  • Synthesis statements are likely questions
  • May still refine CQ
  • Connects data more closely to literature
  • Further refines data collection strategies focusing on emerging themes, patterns
  • Actively seeking multiple perspectives
  • Further refines teaching/interventions
data collection ar memo 3
Data Collection/AR Memo 3
  • Data richer, multi-layered leads to more connections across data sets & to literature
  • Enriched & expanded themes & questions
  • Refined data collection to target specific areas
  • Continue to refine teaching/interventions
  • Actively practicing trustworthiness
yoga retreat final data interpretation
Yoga Retreat:Final Data Interpretation

Actively practicing:

Synthesis

Deconstruction

Contextualization

slide46

Revisit, review & re-read ongoing analysis & memos

Create mind maps, charts, timelines and/or generate categories

Expand

Interpretations

Apply layers of interpretations

Return to Critical Questions

Draft Synthesis Statements

slide47

Practice active deconstruction

Revisit, review & re-read ongoing analysis & memos

Practice active

contextualization

Apply layers of interpretations

What is ignored, lost or disregarded?

Create mind maps, charts, timelines and/or generate categories

slide48

How do I know this ?

Add Data

Expand

Interpretations

How do I know this?

Delete categories

Apply layers of interpretations

Deconstruct &

Contextualize Data

slide49

Apply layers of interpretations

Different perspectives

Participant Voices

Expert Consultation

Contextualization

Draft Synthesis Statements

slide50

What do I still wonder?

Apply layers of interpretations

How are questions limitations?

Return to Critical

Question

How are questions areas to explore?

slide51

Draft Synthesis

Statements

Final Check:

Critical Colleagues

Evaluate

Interpretations for

Trustworthiness

data analysis interpretation summary of process
Data Analysis & Interpretation:Summary of Process
  • Collect data
  • Organize data
  • Analyze, synthesize, deconstruct, contextualize data
  • Pause…reflect during formal spaces of ongoing analysis: Analytic Memo
  • Cycle through above process 2-4 times
  • Final Data Interpretation
writing your story traditional
Writing Your Story: Traditional
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Literature Review
  • Clarifying AR Project (Who, what, how, where, when & limitations)
  • Road Map: Research design/Methodology
  • The Story of the AR Project
  • Further Reflection & Continuing Questions
sharing your story alternatives
Sharing Your Story: Alternatives
  • Digital Witness
  • Narrative, poetry
  • Drama
  • Illustrated Timelines
  • Artwork, graphica
  • Poster Presentations
  • Snapshots
venues for sharing
Venues for Sharing

School

EARCOS

Open Source Journals

Practitioner’s Journal

Conferences

Web Site

Online Publications

Blogs

Newsletters

slide57

AR Data Analysis

Critical

Questions

AR Design

Going

Public

AR Data Interpretation

Collect Data Set

Prewriting

Audience

Key Points

“Thick

Description”

“Results”

Lingering

Questions

Becoming a

Teacher

Action

Researcher

What I will

do in my AR

Project?

Interpretation Scaffold

Observations

Artifacts

Interviews

Revisit, review:

reread ongoing data

analysis & memos

What data

will I collect?

Researcher’s Journal

Create mind maps,

charts, and/or timelines;

generate categories

On-Going Analysis

Organize and read

the data

Think about the data

Chart, free write,cluster

process the data in the

researcher’s journal

Use AR question as

guide

Discover an

area of focus

How will I

collect the data?

Going Public

Web page

Blog

Conferences

Practitioners’

Journals

Newspaper &

Letters

Expand your interpretation

Literature

review

How will I

organize

the data?

Apply layers of

interpretation

Write AR memo

Draft synthesis statements

Questions

Clarify

Critical

Questions

AR Plan

&Timeline

Action

Research

As

Practice

Return to the questions

Draft synthesis

Statements

Critical Questions

4 knowing theory research gives teachers an authoritative voice
#4 Knowing Theory & Research Gives Teachers an Authoritative Voice

Why do Action Research?

  • Speaking from your own experience is
  • Critical.
  • Speaking from your own experience with supportive data is

Persuasive

.

  • Speaking from your own experience with supportive data framed by theory & research is

Powerful

doing action research keeps you in the conversation
Doing Action Research keeps YOU In the Conversation
  • Don’t know theory/research perspectives?
  • Don’t engage in research of your own?

Someone is positioned to TELL YOU.

(You listen.)

  • Know the theory/research perspective?
  • Have research & data of your own?

You ENGAGE, DEBATE

(You Decide.)