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Nonassociative Learning. Lecture 3. Reflexes . Inherited behaviors via genes Smallest unit of organized behavior sensory receptors neurons effectors Learning modification of existing behavior initially reflexive behavior ~. +. +. +. R. Withdrawal reflex. 2 categories of learning.

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Nonassociative learning

NonassociativeLearning

Lecture 3


Reflexes
Reflexes

  • Inherited behaviors

    • via genes

  • Smallest unit of organized behavior

    • sensory receptors

    • neurons

    • effectors

  • Learning

    • modification of existing behavior

    • initially reflexive behavior ~


Nonassociative learning

+

+

+

R

Withdrawal reflex


2 categories of learning
2 categories of learning

  • Similar characteristics

  • Nonassociative

    • modification of reflexes (unconditional responses)

    • Habituation

    • Sensitization

  • Associative

    • Respondent learning

    • Operant learning~


Nonassociative learning habituation
Nonassociative Learning: Habituation

  • Living near the train tracks

  • Habituation

    • ¯response to repeated stimulus

    • stimulus specific

  • Ignore biologically unimportant stimuli

  • Universal in animal kingdom

    • evolved early

      • protozoans ~


Adaptiveness of habituation
Adaptiveness of Habituation

  • Conserves resources

    • energy

    • attention

  • Stimuli w/o consequences

    • response diminishes ~


Stickleback fish
Stickleback Fish

  • Males defend territory

    • Attack when others approach

  • If other males do not enter territory

    • Attack response diminishes ~



Gradually decremental
Gradually Decremental

Hi

Startle

Response

Lo

Number of Presentations


Spontaneous recovery
Spontaneous Recovery

  • Learning is relatively permanent

  • Reinstatement of reflexive response

    • due only to passage of time

    • stimulus may again have consequences ~


Nonassociative learning

Spontaneous Recovery

Stimulus

Hi

Startle

Response

Time

Passes

Lo

Number of Presentations


Is it fatigue
Is it fatigue?

  • Temporary physiological change

    • Motor?

    • Sensory?

  • Dishabituation

    • introduce extraneous stimulus

    • recovery of habituated response ~


Dishabituation example
Dishabituation: Example

  • Tone (Noise)  startle response in rat

    • Repeat tone  habituation

  • Flash a light

    • Present tone  startle response ~


Nonassociative learning

Dishabituation

*Light (New)+

Noise

Hi

Startle

Response

Lo

Number of Presentations

Habituation

occurs


Dishabituation
Dishabituation

  • Decrease in response not due to fatigue

    • animal capable of response

    • signals a new situation

  • Response is inhibited

    • by activity of neurons ~


Generalization
Generalization

  • Organism reacts to similar stimuli in the same way

  • Greater the difference...

    • less habituation evident

  • Color perception in infants ~


Effect of stimulus intensity
Effect of Stimulus Intensity

  • Stimulus intensity

    • Intense  stronger response

    • Weak  weaker response

  • Which stimulus will the organism habituate to more quickly? ~


Stimulus intensity

Strong stimulus

Weak Stimulus

Stimulus Intensity

Hi

Startle

Response

Lo

Number of Presentations

  • If stimulus too strong  no habituation

    • Biologically important ~


Sensitization
Sensitization

  • Increased responsiveness

    • Following a noxious stimulus

  • Less stimulus specific than habituation

    • general increase in vigilance

    • sensitized responses to wide range of stimuli

  • Adaptiveness ~


Nonassociative learning

Sensitization

Noise

Shock

Hi

Startle

Response

Lo

Number of Presentations


Duration habituation sensitization
Duration:Habituation & Sensitization

  • Can be short term

    • lasts hours

    • Change in neural activity

  • or long term

    • several weeks

    • change in neural structure ~


Habituation eating
Habituation & Eating

  • 1st taste most pleasant

    •  # tastes   pleasantness

  • Role in meal termination

    • e.g., popcorn, cashews

  • Not just for taste

    • also texture, shape, odor, etc. ~


Habituation eating rats
Habituation & Eating: Rats

  • Cabanac (1971)

  • Steady flow of sucrose into mouth

    • tasty  disinterest  aversion

  • Allow rats to eat all rat chow they want

    • voluntarily stop

    • offer sucrose: eat just as many calories ~


Habituation eating humans
Habituation & Eating: Humans

  • Rolls (1990)

  • Preference ratings for foods

    • given meal of one of foods

    • rated again   rating for just-eaten food

  • Given 2 meals

    • different foods   same amount eaten

    • same food  2nd meal ate less ~