Definition:. Preliminary Geometric Design of an Airport in Palestine. Advantages of the airport:. The importance of this research reflects the need for Palestinian airport for: 1) Investment sector. 2) Civilization. 3) Politically advantages 4) Necessity for the PNA. 5) Tourism.
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Definition: Preliminary Geometric Design of an Airport in Palestine.
Advantages of the airport: • The importance of this research reflects the need for Palestinian airport for: • 1) Investment sector. • 2) Civilization. • 3) Politically advantages • 4) Necessity for the PNA. • 5) Tourism
Airport site selection • the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) recommends a minimum site selection analysis that includes the following factors: • Operational capability • Ground access • Development costs • Environmental consequences • Socioeconomic factors • Consistency with area-wide planning
site selection according ICAO and FAA codes Al-Buqaiaa site : • The selected site away from any population communities to avoid sound pollution. • The selected site does not affect the population areas growth. • According to the wind rose extracted from the wind movement in the proposed site showed slight wind speed with (N/W) to avoid any cross wind in the runway direction.
The selected site discreption: • ± 10m on mean sea level. • Intermediate of the west bank. • Sandy soil. • The weather is moderate and suitable (ambient temp, humidity) .
AIRPORT SITE COORDINATION • 1 X:187470 Y:129505 • 2 X:189446 Y:129446 • 3 X:186898 Y:125544 • 4 X:188882 Y:125262
Passengers trends during 20 years of airport operation (Million passengers)/year.
Passenger classification / year: • regular daily passengers (Dep/Arr) • High season passengers. • Transit passengers • Omra pilgrims passengers • Haj pilgrims passengers • Christians pilgrims passengers
R.W Considerations The following factors should be considered in locating and orienting a runway: • Wind • Airspace availability • Environmental factors (noise, air and water quality) • Obstructions to navigation • visibility • Wildlife hazards
Runway Orientation provided Wind rose by ministry of transpiration
Runway orientation • The orientation of Runway will be 170o-350o (17-35) Runway. Which is the orientation that satisfies 95% coverage (crosswinds below a critical value) considering yearly wind conditions, with respect to the topography of the airport selected site.
Number of Runways • In this project one primary runway has been designed because the following reasons: • 1- Max capacity for one primary runway is 40-50 operation/hour that means; if the average capacity of airplanes for the fleet mix is 125 passenger/operation. Then the hour capacity for the runway is: 45* 125 = 5625 pax/hour As it cleared before the demand for the airport after 20 years will be about 14 million/year, so the peak-hour-flow is: Average monthly passengers =14000000*0.08417 = 1178380 pax Average daily passengers=1178380 * 0.03226 =38014 pax Peak-day-flow=1.26*38014 = 47898 pax Peak-hour-flow= 0.0917* 47898= 4392 Pax/Hour < 5625 pax/hour So one primary runway is sufficient to cover the demand for 20 years coming. • 2- The nature of topography for the selected site VS the provided wind rose general orientation, make a conflicting to construct parallel runway, because of non-satisfaction for FAR requirements.
Runway Length Justification • Airplanes today operate in a variety of different environments and available field lengths. However, the suitability of those runway lengths is governed by the existing and forecast fleet mix, critical aircraft operational requirements, and the following variables: • Airport elevation above mean sea level • Mean maximum temperature • Wind velocity • Aircraft operating weights • Takeoff and landing flap settings • Effective runway gradient • Runway surface conditions (dry, wet, contaminated, etc.) • Operational use. • Presence of obstructions within the vicinity of the approach and departure path. • Locally imposed noise abatement restrictions and/or other prohibitions
Runway Length Justification • Boeing 747-400 designate as the critical aircraft for determining the primary runway length requirements of this project. • Accordance with FAA guidance, the critical individual aircraft takeoff and landing operating weights for the B747-400, B737-300 and B747-700 were obtained from Boeing’s Airplane Characteristics for Airport Planning manuals associated with these specific aircraft (Table B-2)
Takeoff Length Requirements • To accurately determine takeoff length requirements, the takeoff chart for the B747-400 with dry runway, zero wind, and zero effective runway gradient conditions within the airport’s mean daily maximum temperature of the hottest month at the airport was used.
Landing Length Requirements • Landing length requirements were determined by obtaining the landing chart for the B747-400 with the highest flap setting (30 degrees), zero wind, and zero effective runway gradients.
Runway length design (Sample calculations) • Data: • Airplane Boeing 747-400 Mean daily maximum temperature of hottest month at the airport 34.4 C • Airport elevation 0 (on MSL) • Maximum design landing weight (see table B-2)574,000 pounds (260,362 KG) • Maximum design takeoff weight (see table B-2)875,000 pounds (396,894 KG) • Maximum difference in runway centerline elevations 10 feet
Runway length design (Sample calculations) • Proceed horizontally to the length axis to read 3352.8m. Interpolation is allowed for this design parameter for (Takeoff length requirements 100% Useful Load) • – Adjust for non-zero effective runway gradient • 11,000 + (10 x 10) = 11,000+ 100 = 11,100 feet (3383 m) • (5) The takeoff length requirement is 11,100 feet (3383 m) • (6) Step 5 – Adjust for temperature: • Because it its 0 on S.L T1 =59° F • L2= (0.005*(94-59)*11,100) +11,100= 12931.5 feet Takeoff length requirements 100% Useful Load • Where T1 is standard temperature • L2 is adjusted length of Runway • For Takeoff length requirements 95% Useful Load: • – Adjust for temperature: • Because it its 0 on S.L T1 =59° F • L2= (0.005*(94-59)*10,171) +10,171=11951 feet • Adjust for non-zero effective runway gradient=12051 feet OR(3700 m) Takeoff length
• Selection of Exit: • As mentioned previously, the critical individual aircraft is B747-400 which has touch-down speed is 141 Knots to 166 Knots. • Assume that the touch-down speed=150 Knots and Dth approximate=1000 ft. and as explained before in the text the suitable exit speed for 30o high speed exit is 60 mil/hr. • So: • Vth=150*1.687=253 ft/s • Ve= 60*1.466=87.98 ft/s • And a=3.3 ft/s2 • Then.. • Dc=(253)^2-(87.96)^2/(2*3.3)= 8526 ft • D=Dth+Dc= 1000+8526=9526 ft (From the edge of the runway). • And equal about 2900m from the beginning of the runway.
Selection of Exit: • To be sure that the airport will serve all categories, and in comfortable way, the exit location for category (C) should be determined then. • Category (C) touch-down speed= 121 knots • Assume • Dth=700 ft • Ve= 40 mil/hr for 300 exit flap and.. a=5 ft/sec2 • Vth=121*1.687=204.13 ft/sec • Ve=40*1.466=518.64 ft/sec • And a=5 ft/sec^2 • Dc=(204.13)^2-(58.64)^2/ (2*5)= 3823 ft • Dth=700 ft • D=3823+700=4523 ft which is equal about 1378m from the beginning of the runway.
Selection of Exit • Because of the runway is symmetry, the separation between exits will be like shown in figure:
Imaginary Surfaces summary • Primary= aligned (longitudinally) with each runwayand extends 200 ft. from each runway end • Approach= longitudinally centered with the run way and extends beyond the primary surface • Horizontal= horizontal plane 150 ft. above the established airport elevation. Constructed by swinging arcs around the end of the primary surface • Conical= 20:1 slope surface extending beyond the horizontal surface • Transitional= constructed to join approach and horizontal or approach and transitional surfaces
Imaginary Surfaces summary A = Utility runways B = Runway larger than utility C = Visibility minimums > 3/4 of a mile D = Visibility minimums =< 3/4 of a mile
Airport Reference Code • From the manufacturer airplane criteria see appendix A: • The speed Approach is 154 knots. So that the speed is 141 knots or more but less than 166 knots, there for the Aircraft Approach Category is (D). • Wingspan is 213 ft and tail height is 64.3 ft which they are within the flowing limits 171 - <214 and 60 - <66 in order. There for the Airplane Design Group (ADG) is (V) • So that the Airport Reference Code is (D-V)
Runway components design • Obstacle Free Zone (OFZ) • Runway Blast Pad • Runway Protection Zone (RPZ): • Runway Safety Area (RSA) • Shoulder • Taxiway Safety Area (TSA)
RPZ ARea RPZ Area = 49.978 Acer = 198207 m2
Gradients • Surface gradient standards: Aircraft approach categories C & D: • The longitudinal and transverse gradient standards for runways and stop ways are as follows and as illustrated in following figure • The max longitudinal grade is ± 1.5 %; however, longitudinal grades may not exceed ±0.8% in the first and last quarter of the runway length. It is desirable to keep longitudinal grades to a minimum. • The max allowable grade change is ±1.5%. use longitudinal grade changes only when absolutely necessary. • Vertical curves for longitudinal grade changes are parabolic. The length of the vertical curve is minimum of 1000 ft (300m) for each 1 % change. • The minimum allowable distance between the points of intersection of vertical curves is 1000 ft (300m) multiplied by the sum of the grade changes ( in percent ) associated with the two vertical.
Taxiway Dimensional standards • Taxiway and Taxi lane Object Free Area (OFA) • Taxiway Shoulders • Taxiway safety area (TSA)
Major Terminal Components • Apron. • Connector. • Main Terminal Building. • Airport Access System.
Alternative Terminal Building :Concepts • Simple Terminal Concept. • Linear Concept • Pier Concept. • Satellite Concept.
Estimating Number of gates: • To estimate number of gates, a lot of data is needed, for example: • Peak hour passengers • Equivalent airplane factor • Fleet mix not available • Expected destinations at the same time.
Peak hour passengers: • Average monthly passengers =3440000*0.08417 = 289545 pax • Average daily passengers=289545 * 0.03226 =9341 pax • Peak-day-flow=1.26*9341 = 11769 pax • Peak-hour-flow= 0.0917* 11769= 1079. Pax That means the capacity of airplane of 1 equivalent factor = about 125-135 pax. • So that number of demand gates =1079/135 = 8 gates • In this project it seen recommended to add 4 gates ,for emergency case • And 4 gates for ceremonial usage. • To be the Total estimated gates are ( 16 )