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BELL WORK. Write about the last time you were sick. How did you feel and what happened?. COMMUNICABLE DISEASES. THE BODY’S DEFENSES AGAINST INFECTION. OBJECTIVES. name the body’s first line of defense against pathogens. describe how the immune system functions.

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BELL WORK

Write about the last time you were sick. How did you feel and what happened?

communicable diseases
COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

THE BODY’S DEFENSES AGAINST INFECTION

objectives
OBJECTIVES
  • namethe body’s first line of defense against pathogens.
  • describehow the immune system functions.
  • explainhow antibodies protect the body.
  • practicebehaviors that keep your immune system healthy.
5 major barriers
5 MAJOR BARRIERS
  • TEARS
  • SALIVA
  • SKIN
  • MUCOUS MEMBRANES
  • STOMACH ACID
your body defends itself
YOUR BODY DEFENDS ITSELF

If a pathogen gets past one of the five major barriers, your body’s immune system takes over.

immune system A combination of body defenses made up of the cells, tissues, and organs that fight off pathogens and disease

your body defends itself1
YOUR BODY DEFENDS ITSELF

Your immune system’s two main responses are the nonspecific response and the specific response.

Together, these responses provide immunity.

immunity Your body’s ability to resist germs that cause a particular disease

nonspecific immune response
NONSPECIFIC IMMUNE RESPONSE

The nonspecific response begins with inflammation.

inflammation The body’s response to injury or disease, resulting in a condition of swelling, pain, heat, and redness

nonspecific immune response1
NONSPECIFIC IMMUNE RESPONSE

With inflammation, the body starts producing a protein called interferon to stimulate the body’s immune system.

specific immune response
SPECIFIC IMMUNE RESPONSE

Each specific response is customized to attach a particular pathogen and its toxins.

Our immune system can “recognize” pathogens it has already battled.

the lymphatic system
THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

The fluid circulation in the lymphatic system is called lymph (LIMF).

lymphatic system A secondary circulatory system that helps the body fight pathogens and maintains its fluid balance

the lymphatic system1
THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

The two types of lymphocytes are B cells and T cells.

lymphocytes The white blood cells in the lymphatic system

B cells form in the bone marrow. T cells develop in the thymus gland.

the lymphatic system2
THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

Macrophages are found in the lymph.

Their purpose is to attach themselves to invading pathogens and destroy them.

antibodies and antigens
ANTIBODIES AND ANTIGENS

Lymphocytes react to antigens.

antigen Any substance released by invading pathogens

antibodies and antigens1
ANTIBODIES AND ANTIGENS

The immune system responds to antigens by producing antibodies.

antibodies Proteins that attach to antigens, keeping them from harming the body

antibodies and antigens2
ANTIBODIES AND ANTIGENS
  • B cells produce a specific antibody for each specific antigen.
  • T cells either stimulate the production of B cells or attack pathogens directly.
  • The two types of T cells are helper cells and killer cells.
immunity
IMMUNITY

Everyone is born with a natural immunity.

Immunity also develops when a vaccine is used.

vaccine A preparation of dead or weakened pathogens that causes the immune system to provide antibodies

immunity1
IMMUNITY

To keep your body healthy, it is important to keep vaccinations current.

Vaccines protect not only you but those around you.