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Understanding Canadian Business. Chapter 6 Forms of Business Ownership. Learning Goals. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of sole proprietorship. Describe the differences between general and limited partners, and compare the advantages and disadvantages of partnerships.

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Understanding canadian business

Understanding Canadian Business

Chapter 6

Forms of Business Ownership

Learning goals
Learning Goals

  • Compare the advantages and disadvantages of sole proprietorship.

  • Describe the differences between general and limited partners, and compare the advantages and disadvantages of partnerships.

  • Compare the advantages and disadvantages of corporations.

Learning goals1
Learning Goals

  • Define and give examples of three types of corporate mergers, and explain the role and leveraged buyouts and taking a firm private.

  • Outline the advantages and disadvantages of franchises, and discuss the challenges of global franchising.

  • Describe the role of co-operatives in Canada.

  • One key to success in starting a new business is understanding how to get the resources you need.

  • You may have to take on partners or find other ways of obtaining money.

  • You may need help from someone with more expertise than you have in certain areas, or you may need to raise more money to expand.

Sole proprietorship
Sole Proprietorship understanding

Advantages of sole proprietorship
Advantages of Sole Proprietorship understanding

  • Sole proprietorships are the easiest kind of business for you to explore in your quest for an interesting career. Other advantages include:

Partnerships understanding

Advantages of partnerships
Advantages of Partnerships understanding

  • More financial resources

  • Shared management & pooled/complementary skills and knowledge

  • Longer survival

  • Shared risk

  • No special taxes

Disadvantages of partnerships
Disadvantages of Partnerships understanding

  • Unlimited liability

    • Each general partner is liable for the debts of the firm, no matter who was responsible for causing the debts.

  • Division of profits

    • Sharing risk means sharing profits, and that can cause conflicts.

  • Disagreements among partners

    • All terms of partnership should be spelled out in writing to protect all parties and minimize misunderstandings

  • Difficult to terminate

Progress assessment
Progress Assessment understanding

  • What is the difference between a limited partners and a general partners?

  • What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of partnerships?

Corporations understanding

Business regulations
Business Regulations understanding

  • Registration

    • Governments need to know what businesses are in operation to ensure that a wide range of laws and regulations are being followed.

      • Unique business names

      • Taxes are being paid

  • Articles of incorporationis a legal authorization from the federal or provincial/territorial government for a company to use the corporate format.

Other types of corporations
Other Types of Corporations understanding

  • Non-resident corporation

    • Conducts business in Canada, but has its head office outside of Canada.

  • Non-profit corporation

    • Formed for charitable or socially beneficial purposes.

  • Crown corporation

    • Are companies that only the federal or a provincial government can set up.

  • Professional corporation

    • Is a Canadian-controlled private corporation engaged in providing professional services.

Progress assessment1
Progress Assessment understanding

  • What are the major advantages and disadvantages of incorporating a business?

  • What is the role of owners (stockholders) in the corporate hierarchy?

  • If you buy stock in a corporation and someone is injured by one of the corporation’s products, can you personally be sued? Why or why not?

Sweet opportunities
Sweet Opportunities understanding

You are a consultant, and will make a recommendation as to what form of business ownership you think is best for each client.

Liability understanding

  • Liability can be an issue for sole proprietorships and partnerships when:

  • Debts are owed when a business fails or has financial difficulties;

  • If not insured, when there is loss due to disaster;

  • Lawsuits occur

Finance options
Finance Options understanding

  • Corporations have more options when they need to obtain additional financing (loans, investments in the form of stocks and/or corporate bonds).

  • Sole proprietors and partners often have personal assets as their only source of money (they can maybe borrow from banks, friends, family).

Tax implications
Tax Implications understanding

  • Sole proprietors and partners pay individual income tax on their companies’ earnings.

  • Double Taxation – a corporation is taxed as a separate entity that pays tax on its income. Stockholders also pay personal income tax on any dividends they make.

Life of the business
Life of the Business understanding

  • Sole proprietorshipsand partnerships may dissolve in the event of the death or illness of the owner.

  • Disagreements may lead to partnerships breaking up.

  • Corporations continue to exist beyond personal circumstances.

Discussion questions
Discussion Questions understanding

  • Why do you think so many corporations begin as sole proprietorships or partnerships?

  • Why do you think so many sole proprietorships and partnerships become corporations?

Definitions understanding

Vertical merger companies in different stages in related industries
Vertical Merger understanding (companies in different stages in related industries)

Horizontal merger companies in the same industry
Horizontal Merger understanding (companies in the same industry)

Conglomerate merger companies in unrelated industries
Conglomerate Merger understanding (companies in unrelated industries)

Franchising understanding

Franchising understanding



  • Management and marketing assistance

  • Personal ownership

  • Nationally recognized name

  • Financial advice and assistance

  • Lower failure rate

  • Large start-up costs

  • Shared profit

  • Management regulation

  • Coattail effects

  • Restrictions on selling

  • Fraudulent franchisors

Checklist for evaluating a franchise
Checklist for Evaluating a Franchise understanding

  • How much equity capital will you need to purchase the franchise and operate it until your income equals your expenses?

  • Does the franchisor offer financing for a portion of the franchising fees? On what terms?

  • Are you prepared to give up some independence of action to secure the advantages offered by the franchise? Do you have your family’s support?

  • Does the industry appeal to you? Are you ready to spend much or all of the remainder of your business life with this franchisor, offering its products or services to the public?

Home based franchises
Home-based Franchises understanding

  • Advantages

    • Relief from the stress of commuting

    • Extra time for family activities and

    • Low overhead expenses

  • Disadvantages

    • Feeling of isolation

      • Home-based franchisees feel less isolated than home-based entrepreneurs.

      • Experienced franchisors share their knowledge of building a profitable enterprise with franchisees.

E commerce in franchising
E-Commerce in Franchising understanding

  • PropertyGuys.com is an example of a franchise that uses e-commerce

    • Formed in 1998 in Moncton, NB. PropertyGuys.com has built on the“For Sale by Owner (FSBO)” Internet concept.

    • Packages include a combination of print advertising, direct mail, electronic mail, seller’s documentation, a For Sale sign, a website listing, and a phone answering service.

Franchising in international markets
Franchising in International Markets understanding

  • The US is by far the most popular target for Canadian-based franchises.

  • Tim Horton’s

    • Paul House, COO and president of Tim Horton’s plans to operate 500 stores in the US by the end of the decade. Currently, there are about 250 stores.

  • Beavertail’s Pastry

    • Introduced in Ottawa in 1978, there are now more than 130 locations in seven countries.

  • What makes franchising successful in international markets is what makes it successful domestically; convenience and predictable level of service.

Co operative

Co-operative understanding

An organization that is owned by members and customers, who pay an annual membership fee and share in any profits.

Co operatives
Co-operatives understanding

  • 4/10 Canadians are members of at least one co-op.

  • There are more than 9,000 co-operatives in Canada that employ 155,000 people.

  • Some co-ops are listed in Canada’s top 500 companies and several financial co-operatives have been rated the best places to work in Canada.

  • Fishermen and farmers catch and produce their own products, but part of the marketing is done through jointly owned co-ops.

Co operatives differ from other businesses
Co-operatives Differ from understanding Other Businesses

  • Purpose – meet the common needs of the members

  • Control structure1 Member = 1 Vote

  • Allocation of profit – share profits among their member-owners on the basis of how much they use the co-op, not how many shares they hold