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Photobiomodulation The Healing Power of Light Janis T. Eells, Ph.D. Wisconsin Distinguished Professor. Thank You for the Opportunity to Share Our Work. WiSys and M. John UW Stout. Colleagues and Collaborators. Ron Ignatius Judy Ignatius Robin Schumacher. Janis Eells
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Photobiomodulation The Healing Power of Light Janis T. Eells, Ph.D. Wisconsin Distinguished Professor
Thank You for the Opportunity to Share Our Work • WiSys and M. John • UW Stout
Colleagues and Collaborators • Ron Ignatius • Judy Ignatius • Robin Schumacher • Janis Eells • Kristina DeSmet • Sandeep Gopalakrishan • Jonathan Stone • Krisztina Valter • Diana Kirk • Alfredo Sadun • Harry Whelan • Margaret Wong-Riley • Michele Henry • Ellen Buchmann • Jim VerHoeve • Mike Nork • Solange Salomao • Adriana Berezovsky • Rina Das • Marti Jett
Photobiomodulation Change in Function by Light EXAMPLES • Photosynthesis • Vit D Activation • Rhodopsin activation in Vision
The Leap from Plants to Animals • Light stimulates photoacceptor molecules in plant cells and in animal cells. • Plant cells chloroplasts contain chlorophylls and other photoacceptors phytochromes, cryptochromes • Animal cells - cytochrome c oxidase (mitochondria), hemoglobin, myoglobin, porphyrin compounds.
From Growing Plants on the Space Shuttle to Treating Mouth Ulcers in Cancer Patients • NASA funded the development of LEDs for use in Plant Growth Experiments on the Space Shuttle and International Space station • QDI and Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics • Shown to improve healing in animal models of diabetic wound healing • Used to improve healing of Mucositis in Bone Marrow Transplant Patients
Photobiomodulation Postulated Signaling Pathway
Photobiomodulation Activation of Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase
Why Cytochrome OxidaseCorrelation of Absorption Spectrum with Action Spectrum
Photobiomodulation Why Cytochrome Oxidase? • Cytochrome Oxidase absorbs light at the NIR wavelengths which promote cell division, cell repair and cell metabolism • Key mitochondrial enzyme • Important Regulator of Cell Function • Cell Signal Transducer
Why Mitochondria? • Produce Energy - ATP • Side Product - ROS • Signal other parts of cell • Regulate Life and Death of the Cell -”nature’s ultimate clock”
Mitochondrial Dysfunction Plays An Important Role in Cellular Aging and Degenerative Diseases • Cardiovascular Disease • Eye Diseases - Macular Degeneration, Glaucoma • Neurodegenerative Diseases - Parkinson’s Disease • Skeletal Muscle - Aging and Injury • Metabolic Diseases - Diabetes • Environmental Toxins - TCDD
Photobiomodulation for Laser Induced Retinal Damage Pilot Lased Damaged Retina Healed Functional Retina Low Level Energy Therapy Integrated into Face Sheild and Helmet of Pilot Persistence in Combat
Photobiomodulation Promotes Retinal Healing Following Laser Eye Injury
Methanol Intoxication: Models Aging and Retinal Disease by poisoning retinal mitochondria • Ingestion of a small amount (1-2 oz) of methanol can produce permanent blindness. • Methanol is metabolized to a mitochondrial toxin, formic acid which acts to inhibit Cytochrome Oxidase. • Formic acid disrupts mitochondrial function in the retina and optic nerve resulting in blindness.
Photobiomodulation Attenuates Methanol Toxicity Protects Against Loss of Retinal Function 670 nm Treatment At 5 hr, 25hr, 50 hr 28 mW/cm2 - 2 min 4 joules/cm2
Photobiomodulation Attenuates Methanol Toxicity Prevents Retinal Damage
Retinitis Pigmentosa is a Retinal Degenerative Disease Characterized by Photoreceptor Death • A majority of RP cases result from a mutation in the rhodopsin gene • Leading to misfolded opsin. • Misfolded opsin increases oxidative stress and leads to photoreceptor cell death
Will Photobiomodulation Attenuate Photoreceptor Cell Death Retinits Pigmentosa? Time Course of Photoreceptor Death in the P23H-3 and SD Retina
Photobiomodulation maintained or upregulated cytochrome oxidase activity in the inner segments of photoreceptors.
Photobiomodulation reduced the rate of photoreceptor death during the critical period:
Photobiomodulation Applications • Eye Diseases - Macular Degeneration, Glaucoma, Diabetic Retinopathy • Neurodegenerative Diseases - Parkinson’s Disease, ALS, Alzheimers Disease, MS • Skeletal Muscle - Aging and Injury • Metabolic Diseases - Diabetes • Environmental Toxins