Bottom-up cultural policies –University in a changing world– innovation, mobilization & solidarity as a response to crisis:micro-political cultural actions and interventions– micronucleus of creativity Milena Dragicevic SesicUniversity of Arts, Belgrade, Serbia
Culture au pluriel;invention au quotidienhommage a Michel de Certeau and the Czech film authors Jiří Menzel Věra Chytilová, Elmar Klos, Jan Svěrák, Jiří Menzel, Miloš Forman, Ivan Passer, Otakar Vávra, Petr Zelenka, and all the Yugoslavians’ Czech-educated film directors – micro stories of rebellion and dissent… ,
Words - trends & fashion In cultural policies & management • Cultural pluralism multiculturalism cultural diversity • Accessibility inclusivity • Ethno music world music • Exchange cooperation collaboration • Animationmediation translation • Foreign cult.policy cultural diplomacy • Co-productions partnership • Associations network collaborativ net. • Nation state Region territory • Multidisciplinary intersectorial CREATIVITY
Elia Biannual conference – 5th october 2000, Barcelona Celebration – 10 years of networking United Europe Mobility Europe – Joy of building European citizenship
Belgrade – 10 years of univ. Strikes (isolation, no work): March 1991 May-August 1992 UN educational embargo… Winter 1994 – no heating – no work Nov.96-april 97 – citizen & students protest 1998 – pro media (studio B) 1999- 3 month war 2000 - May to June –strike against police beating stud. 2000 – September- 5th October – strike for “votes” Starting point – crisis managementUniversity – culture of dissent
Characteristics of Balkan cultural scene • Culture of dissent • Fear of consensus • Fear of “pensee unique” • No confidence in public governance • Provocation – offensivness Subversion Microactions - resistance
University of Arts in Belgrade -new era – can university let creativity develop? • Responsibility of university toward public • University as a nucleus of resistance – of provocation • University as keeper of “national tradition” • Florida – “we need to reform Universities” • “To reform a university, means to move a cemetery” – you just move in another space...
Ethnic (constructed community) driven cultural policyUniversity of Arts response – Territorially driven cultural policy - interdisciplinarity
organizational culturepromoting creativity and inovation universities - knowledge creation & production • Research base & critical thinking • Platforms for debate • agents of change within cultural and artistic practices • active cultural policy creators 1st international conference after changes: University of arts as experimental space for innovation (from institutional to project logic) 3-5 October 2002
re-shaping educational and cultural field • peer-learning, • research-based learning, • project based learning, (Community actions – micro-actions) • practice based learning • Analysis • Evaluations • debates
Interdisciplinary programs • Interdisciplinary MA & doctoral studies: UNESCO Chair in Cultural management and Cultural Policy (in French & English), Art & Media Theory, Public Arts, Polimedia (Mixed media), Digital arts... • Summer schools – as spaces for innovation, interdisciplinarity, experiments / situated in multicultural environment (Novi Pazar, Subotica, Pancevo, Negotin…) or linked to concrete cultural institutions (Museum Old Village, Sirogojno, Mokra Gora).
Novi Pazar 2001 Students in Jeans factory
Politics of memory – research & project based learning • Fighting policy of oblivion within cultural policy – forgotten multiculturality memory spots Novi Pazar Belgrade Subotica Sremski Karlovci Pancevo Negotin Uzice student projects
New ethics – new responsibility • interdependence of openness and intersectorial crossing with development of new ethics of contemporary learning institutions. • Socially Responsible – raising awareness, Fighting for Social justice
Research based learning (rural Cultural tourism research group + digital arts students)
No campus? ………………… • How to make advantage of it… Community involvement…
Peer learning – Creative industries workshop with young enterpreneurs – 27.02.2007 Film producer, Publishing editor Rap musician Fashion designer
Site specific actions- 1st year students of Cultural Management with Students of Architecture - intersectorial crossingsDestatic, “Priprema, Pozor - Stop”Zeleni venac, Beograd, 2008.
“Call number 13...” Student Activist Memory Projects Micronucleus of innovation and resistance Destatic, Ugao ulica Kneza Miloša i Bulevara kralja Aleksandra, Beograd, 2008.
Adventure COOlture • Avantura kultura! • Interactive guide through Belgrade culture for 12 year old! • Diploma project of Cultural Management student Marko Radenković with students of Graphic Design and Art History department • 140 000 cds had been distributed • Department Belfort in France commissioned for themselves...
Synergy – is it possible?Shared cultural policy? University as a catalizer • Elected power • Expert power • Socially responsible forces • Financial power
Success driven – philosophy of competivity and achievements (accepting top-down policy) research, scientific innovation, entrepreneurial ambitions, territorial expansion, pedagogical and curriculum innovation, Social values – community development visions – bottom-up cultural policy Micronucleus of resistance to consumeristic culture of standardisation community relations public responsibilities (sense for social resp.) Culture au pluriel - Intercultural dialogue Parametars of organizational values – two sets of codes
developmental policy – philosophy of development – based on • the organizational culture of the educational institution understood as part of the tradition in a wider cultural environment; • leadership, which includes educational, research/ aesthetic, conceptual and organizational characteristics; • the internal and external image and identity of the organization,
Developmental philosophies – few examples • the University oriented toward research & innovation – laboratory, research ground • the University oriented toward the entrepreneurialship (business innovation), • The University oriented toward knowledge transfer – the teaching-learning organization – learning ground, • The University with social mission - the activist organization – meeting ground of ideas (Paris VIII), • Commercial University (new private univ. in eastern Europe).
research and innovation oriented University: “laboratory” • in the focus of the University strategy is “knowledge production”, investment in research, experimentation, innovative and creative thinking. • principle of excellence in research (more cross-sectorial and interdisciplinary) • The developmental philosophy based on the promotion of quality through total quality management (Demming, 1986) but also innovation in management and internal structuring. • flexiblity even ensuring “adhocracy” (Toffler, 1983) – management through project structures.
appropriate developmental strategies quality achievement strategies • support for quality development – achievement of excellence – prestige(investment in research leadership = attracting top researchers…) • strategy of knowledge codification – norming research & professional standards of operation • securing (exclusive) licensing rights – emphasis on its own “patents”…
The activist organization - University with social mission – meeting ground of ideas • sense of the social “mission” of the University, the philosophy of social activism • active debate inside and outside campuses • “applied” policy research in different domains of social life (educational, cultural, public health policy, international relations…)
appropriate developmental strategies for this type of university include: • the strategies of linkage (partnership with NGOs, public institutions, media…) • The strategies of public action – taking social responsibility (policy papers and applied research …) - Artivism – activism…
– the teaching-learning organization – learning ground • absorption of the existing knowledge and its introduction into the organization • ability to comprehend quickly and in depth the needs and resources of the relevant territorial communities. • mediating role (transfers knowledge created in world research - academic centres to its own community) • does not require innovative structure of organization
appropriate developmental strategies • education and knowledge transfer, • decentralization, • inter-sectorial linkage • networking, partnership, internationalization.
Entrepreneurial organization culture - workshop • pressure on higher educational institutions in the public sector to generate their own revenue and improve their efficiency and effectiveness with good management • high level of responsibility towards the social environment in response to its perceived (mostly economical) needs
appropriate developmental strategies • organizational and competitive strategies, • strategies ofquality improvement (bringing most dynamic and innovative researchers capable to concretize their research in products needed in contemporary economy) • strategies of linkage (inter-sectorial linkage). • In turbulent circumstances, such organizations will first look for the strategies of sustainability, such as privatization, mergers with other organizations, migration to a new environment, etc.
Commercial university • widespread among new private universities in transitional countries. They usually include only “profitable departments” such as management, economy, but also design, media, even acting – – everything that is most appropriately referred to as the “creative industries”, sometimes called the “content industries”
Characteristics • Operating in the strictly market-oriented and competitive environment, they are forced to reduce their programs and methods of teaching to those who are short-term effective, and to devote the large amount of the energy to the marketing mechanisms.
appropriate developmental strategies competitive strategies • diversification of study programmes • increasing the number of study programs and students – the organization’s growth (increased number of personnel) • commercialization of programmes and the spread of side services • market expansion (to other countries…) • programme-focused orientation/ choosing most actual – profitable departments
Conclusions The examples given here of the developmental philosophies and corresponding types of organization show that top quality and great achievement is possible only in organizations that have a clear vision, a coherent value system and programme scope, and the related organizational culture
Organic evolutionary model • The classical European model of development of educational institutions can be called the organic evolutionary model. It assumes that the core or essence of the institution cannot be significantly changed with the changing social system as the main mission should remain (as codified in university laws, statutes etc).
Conclusions • University management duty is to formulate a philosophy of development with the corresponding strategies, to achieve full effectiveness and best educational and academic (research oriented) results. • stability and overall quality of an educational system depend on the implementation of different but complementary philosophies of development. • The educational and research community needs universities that create and discover things, produce the new knowledge, do research with non-immediate profit outcome, those that learn and learn others, and the organizations that are socially engaged in changing values of society but also entrepreneurial, that open new domains and markets.
Three rectors – three philosophies of development • Darinka Matic Marovic – strategy of quality achievement • Radmila Bakocevic – strategy of learning/teaching • Milena Dragicevic Sesic – strategy of internationalization & public engagement
Profit based Product (inspired by clients needs) quantitative Kill competition Efficiency, productivity, rentability Logic of the branding (creation of stereotype) Value based (Art achievement L`œuvre (inspired by artist need) Qualitative Support competition Effectivness, influence, experience Logic of identity - profiling Logic of business/cultural management