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Acids & Bases. Calculating Ka from % Dissociation Polyprotic Acids Properties of Salts. Example. Lactic acid (HC 3 H 5 O 3 ) is a waste product that accumulates in the muscle during exertion, leading to pain & a feeling of fatigue. A 0.100 M solution is 3.7% dissociated. Calculate K a.

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acids bases

Acids & Bases

Calculating Ka from % Dissociation

Polyprotic Acids

Properties of Salts

example
Example
  • Lactic acid (HC3H5O3) is a waste product that accumulates in the muscle during exertion, leading to pain & a feeling of fatigue. A 0.100 M solution is 3.7% dissociated. Calculate Ka.
example1
Example

HC3H5O3  H+ + C3H5O3-

polyprotic acids
Polyprotic Acids
  • More that one ionizable H+
  • H+ come off one at a time
  • Each one has a specific Ka value
  • Ka1>>>>Ka2>>Ka3
  • When calculating the pH of a polyprotic acid, you only use the 1st Ka because all of the others are so small
complete ionization
Complete Ionization
  • Write the steps for the complete ionization of H2Se
complete ionization1
Complete Ionization
  • Write the steps for the complete ionization of H3AsO
example2
Example
  • Calculate the pH & the [ ] of all species of a 3.0 M solution of H3PO4.
  • Ka1 = 7.5 x 10-3, Ka2 = 6.2 x 10-8, Ka3 = 4.8 x 10 -13
example3
Example

H3PO4 H+ + H2PO4- Ka1 = 7.5 x 10-3

example4
Example

H2PO4 - H+ + HPO4-2 Ka1 = 6.2 x 10-8

example5
Example

HPO4 -2 H+ + PO4-3 Ka3 = 4.8 x 10-13

example6
Example
  • pH =
  • [H3PO4] =
  • [H2PO4-] =
  • [HPO4-2] =
  • [PO4-3] =
  • [H+] =
acid base properties of salts
Acid Base Properties of Salts
  • Salts of weak acids produce basic solutions
  • NaC2H3O2
acid base properties of salts1
Acid Base Properties of Salts
  • Salts of weak bases produce acidic solutions
  • NH4Cl
acid base properties of salts2
Acid Base Properties of Salts
  • Salts of strong acids & Bases produce neutral solutions
  • NaCl
calculations with salts
Calculations with salts
  • KaxKb = Kw
  • Can find Ka or Kb with this equation
  • On AP formula sheet
example7
Example
  • What is the pH if a 0.140M solution of NaC2H3O2 (KaHC2H3O2 = 1.8x10-5)
another example
Another example
  • What is the pH of a 0.140M solution of diethylaminochloride (C2H5)2NH3Cl.
  • Kb (C2H5)2NH3+ = 1.3x10-3
  • (C2H5)2NH3Cl  (C2H5)2NH3+ + Cl-
  • (C2H5)2NH3+ + H2O  (C2H5)2NH2 + H3O +
qualitative predictions of ph
Qualitative Predictions of pH
  • Ka>Kb  acidic
  • Kb>Ka  basic
  • Ka = Kb  neutral
ph predictions
pH Predictions
  • Predict if an aqueous solution of the following are acidic, basic, or neutral
  • NH4C2H3O2
  • Kb NH4+ = 1.8x10-5
  • Ka HC2H3O2 = 1.8x10-5
ph predictions1
pH Predictions
  • Predict if an aqueous solution of the following are acidic, basic, or neutral
  • NH4CN
  • Kb NH4+ = 1.8x10-5
  • Ka HCN= 6.2x10-10
effect of structure of acid base properties
Effect of Structure of Acid Base Properties
  • Weak acid (HF)
    • Stays together
  • Strong acids
    • Look at electronegativity