Punctuation Rules commas colon Adapted From Ms. Fulmer semicolon
Comma Rule #1 • Use commas to separate items in a series. Example: Please buy apples, oranges, and bananas.
Comma Rule #2 • Use a comma to separate two or more adjectives preceding a noun. Example: Abraham Lincoln was a noble, compassionate, wise leader.
Comma Rule #3 • Use a comma before coordinating conjunctions when they join independent clauses. FANBOYS – for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so Example: My friend invited me to a party, but I do not want to go.
Comma Rule #4 • Use a comma to set off nonessential clauses and phrases. • A nonessential clause or phrase is one that can be left out of the sentence without changing the meaning of the sentence. Example: My aunt, wearing the kimono, is on her way to a dinner party.
Comma Rule #5 • Use a comma after certain introductory words such as first, yes, or no. Example: Yes, Hemmingway is my favorite author.
Comma Rule #5 B. Use a comma after an introductory phrase or clause. Example: Standing on the quarter-deck, Captain Ahab spoke to his crew.
Comma Rule #5 C. Use a comma after an introductory prepositional phrase. Example: After the football game, we will go out to dinner.
Comma Rule #6 A. Use commas to set off appositives and appositive phrases. Example: My favorite book by John Grisham, A Time to Kill, was published in 1989.
Comma Rule #6 B. Use commas to set off words in direct address. Example: Your essay, Tom, was well organized.
Comma Rule #7 1.) Use commas to separate items in dates and addresses. Example: On Friday, June 10, 2005, my niece Melania was born.
Comma Rule #8 1.) Use a comma after the beginning of a friendly letter and after the closing of a letter. Example: Dear Rosa, Sincerely,
Comma Rule #9 1.) Use a comma to set off an abbreviation such as Jr., Sr., RN, M.D., Inc., Example: Is Juan Fuentes Jr., your cousin?
Comma Rule #10 1.) Use a comma to introduce quotations. Example: John said, “I will go to the park with you.”
Comma Splice 1.) A comma splice is a run-on sentence with a comma where the two sentences run together. 2. ) You MUST use a comma and a conjunction or a semicolon to join 2 independent clauses. Incorrectly Written: Joe went to the grocery store, he needed to buy food for dinner. Correctly Written: Joe went to the grocery store; he needed to buy food for dinner.
Semicolon Rule #1 1.) Use a semicolon between independent clauses. This is called a compound sentence. Example: It rained heavily during the afternoon; we managed to have our picnic anyway.
Semicolon Rule #2 1.) Use a semicolon between independent clauses joined by a conjunctive adverb or a transitional phrase. Example: I like cows; however, I hate the way they smell.
Transitional Phrases: for example for instance such as as a result in addition Conjunctive Adverbs: accordingly likewise nevertheless therefore consequently similarly however furthermore
Colon Rules 1.) Use a colon before a list of items, especially after expressions such as follows and following. 2.) Do NOT use a colon before a list that directly follows a verb or a preposition. Example: Please buy the following items while you are at the store: meat, potatoes, and milk.
Instructions Complete the comma exercise on paper first. Then click we will go on line to check your answers. Use a RED PEN to correct all missed questions. Comma Exercise ANSWERS - CLICK HERE Ask Mr. Victor for a copy. click here!