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Texas School for the Blind & Visually Impaired. Unified Braille: A Closer Look at NUBS and UEB. Presented by:. Maylene Bird , TVI and COMS, Certified Secondary Mathematics and Biology Teacher at TSBVI

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## Texas School for the Blind & Visually Impaired

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**Texas School for the Blind & Visually Impaired**Unified Braille: A Closer Look at NUBS and UEB**Presented by:**• Maylene Bird, TVI and COMS, Certified Secondary Mathematics and Biology Teacher at TSBVI • Susan Osterhaus, TVI, Certified Secondary Mathematics and English Teacher, State Wide Mathematics Consultant at TSBVI**Presenters (continued):**• Jeri Cleveland, TVI, Certified Elementary, Secondary English, and Master Reading Teacher, Curriculum Teacher at TSBVI • Sue Mattson, Certified Braille Transcriber/ Adapted Materials Specialist at TSBVI**Literary**Jeri and Sue**Definitions**• EBAE – English Braille American Edition –Our current braille code. A set of rules that govern the transcription of literary braille. An explanation of the rules for the use of contractions, composition signs and directions for formatting literary and general materials. • Braille Formats: Principles of Print-to-Braille Translation – rules applied to the transcription of textbooks and instructional material.**Definitions**• BANA – Braille Authority of North America – Their mission is to assure literacy for tactile readers through standardization of braille and/or tactile graphics. Established in 1976, this group includes national consumer organizations, braille producers, the Library of Congress, transcribing organizations, and others. • ICEB – International Council on English Braille - Their purpose is to coordinate and improve standards for braille usage for all English-speaking users of braille.**Definitions**• UEB – Unified English Braille – a unified code, developed by ICEB, under consideration by BANA to replace our currently used literary, Nemeth and Computer Braille Code, uses upper cell numbers • NUBS – Nemeth Uniform Braille System – a unified braille system, developed by Dr. Abraham Nemeth, under consideration by BANA to replace our currently used literary, Nemeth and Computer Braille Code, uses lower cell numbers and retains most of the currently used contractions**The Call for Unification**• Started in 1991 with a memo written to BANA by Drs. T.V. Cranmer and Abraham Nemethhttp://www.iceb.org/cranem.html • BANA recently published three articles outlining their reasons for supporting a unified braille code • The Evolution of Braille: Can the Past Help the Future (Part 1, Part 2, and Part 3)http://www.brailleauthority.org/**One Unified Code from Three**• Literary braille • Nemeth & Chemical notation • Computer braille (Braille Music is not included)**The Evolution of Technology**Print and Braille**Impact of Technology on Print**• The use of color • Varieties of emphasis: bold, italics, underline, fonts, size and color • Formatting • Extension of symbols and their meanings • Non-linear – superscripts and subscripts**Continued**• Office and home computers, laptops and printers have allowed everyone to be a publisher • Print no longer confined to paper; it’s electronic: we blog, text, tweet and Skype • Computers • E-readers: Kindle, Nook, iPad, etc. • Smart phones**Continued**• Technology has impacted braille production positively • Computer assisted translation • Embossers • Improvements in scanners and OCR software • Refreshable braille displays**The 1991 Article to BANA**• Written by Dr. T. V. Cranmer and Dr. Abraham Nemeth • Thesis: The complexity of braille led to an erosion of braille usage.**1. Complexity of Braille Creates Conflict**• Multiple braille codes • Multiple meanings for symbols • Multiple symbols with the same meaning**Multiple Braille Codes**As the braille codes were developed independently of each other they resulted in numerous conflicts.**Multiple Print Codes**• Prose • Computer programming languages • Accounting ledgers • Chemical formulas**Multiple Meanings - Print Examples**! • Exclamation point • Factorial sign in Mathematics . • Period • Decimal point • Multiplication**Continued**@ • The “at sign” in an email address:johndoe@example.com • An accounting or a business invoice abbreviation meaning “at the rate of”**More Examples**< and > • “Less than” and “greater than” in math • Used to denote quotations in email • Angle brackets**Symbols Out of Context**BANA recently used the following example as the reason for pointing out that there are 3 symbols for a dollar sign in braille: Ke$ha Isn’t this symbol also out of context for a print reader?**2. Fewer Braille Readers**The article states: Professionals resist teaching braille because: • It is too complex • Down-play usefulness of braille in favor of electronic devices**Other Contributing Factors**• Complexity of braille confused with tactile skill • Not enough time devoted to actual braille reading in school – braille under the fingertips • Lack of professional training and support for teachers, transcribers and parents • Inadequate Nemeth code instructional materials • Four conflicting sets of braille rules**Stated Goals for a Unified Braille Code**• Reduce complexity of braille. • Reduce conflicts in braille. • Accurately represent printed materials in braille.**Considering a Unified Code**A unified braille code must have the following balance of characteristics: • Read-ability • Write-ability • Think-ability • Translate-ability**Read-ability**• Reading should become quick and automatic • Interpretation of characters with multiple meanings can be quickly inferred from context • Express mathematics and technical material as well as literary**Write-ability**• Writing should be quick and automatic • Code should not get in the way of the meaning**Think-abilityCognitive Load**“Think of the cognitive load. I must physically touch each one of those characters keeping in mind how the placement of one might affect the meaning of another. Meanwhile the problem must be held in my very limited short-term memory space.” –Amanda Lacy • How many modes and indicators are too many?**Translate-ability**• Flows back and forth between print and braille • Easy • Accurate • Supports independence**Limitations of a Unified Code**• Can’t solve all the problems • Won’t eliminate all ambiguity • Only as good as the supporting documents • Won’t eliminate the need for well-trained transcribers • Won’t eliminate the need for more training and support for teachers**Can We Learn From The Past**The War of the Dots In 1911, Miss L. Pearl Howard and Mrs. Elwyn H. Fowler, representing the Uniform Type Committee traveled the country and conducted tests in 36 states; they tested 1200 readers. http://www.afb.org/warofthedots/book.asp**Literary Examples**A joke Recipe ingredients Text styles Dictionary entry Personal data**Technical**Susan and Maylene**Definitions**• STEM fields - an acronym for the fields of study in the categories of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. • XML - Extensible Markup Language - defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable. • MathML – Mathematical Markup Language - an application of XML for describing mathematical notations and capturing both its structure and content. It aims at integrating mathematical formulas into World Wide Web pages and other documents. MathML = Math Accessibility**The Way it Was**• Before the 1960s, blind children were usually educated in residential schools for the blind. • All their teachers knew how to read braille, could create braille materials, and read the students’ materials. • Transcribers could only produce braille by hand, either using a Perkins braillewriter or a slate and stylus. Multiple copies could be produced only using a thermoform machine.**Beginning of Change**• Much changed in the 1970s. Public Law 94-142 provided that blind children should be educated in the “least restrictive environment.” This law accelerated the trend toward blind children being educated in the public schools. This lead to an increased need for braille transcribers. • Braille code for mathematics changed several times during the first half of the twentieth century, but by 1972, the Nemeth Code for Science and Mathematics Notation was the standard.**What’s In Place Todayhttp://www.brailleauthority.org/**• Nemeth Code for Science and Mathematics Notation, 1972 • Braille Code for Chemical Notation, 1997 • Computer Braille Code (CBC), 2000 • EBAE – English Braille American Edition, 2002 • Guidelines and Standards for Tactile Graphics, 2010 • Braille Formats: Principles of Print to Braille Transcription, 2011**Where are We Going?**• Now with various combinations of Internet media, speech output, braille displays, scanning and OCR, braille translation software, and braille embossers, blind people can read, in a matter of moments, virtually anything created by anyone, with the exception of the STEM fields. However, Expanding Audio Access to Mathematics Expressions by Students with Visual Impairments via MathMLis coming. • Nevertheless, braille under the fingertips is still a requirement for the majority of blind individuals working in the STEM fields.**Comments from a teacher who has lived some of this history**Comparing Nemeth, UEB, and NUBS from the perspective of a math and vi teacher**Prior to the Nemeth Code, the Taylor Code was used, but it**did not support higher mathematics. • The Nemeth Code is logical and supports print mathematics quite successfully. • In 1978, the highest level of mathematics taught at the Texas School for the Blind was a two-year pre-algebra class. In 2011, a female braille student at the school scored a 5 on the AP Calculus exam – highest score possible! • Math requirements have continued to grow more rigorous, and we expect that trend to persist. At present in Texas, graduation requirements for a general education high school diploma are 4 credits in both upper level math and science.**We are now seeing the first generation of adult braille**users that were educated by TVIs who only learned Nemeth Code, as opposed to the Taylor Code. These young adults learned Nemeth Code from the beginning and many are showing great success in college, graduate school, and specifically in the STEM fields. • Losing the Nemeth Code could set math education for the blind back 40 years. • If and when the time is right, NUBS (Nemeth Uniform Braille System) may be the better Unified Braille Code.**The Learning of Mathematics**• Highest level of math achieved in high school was shown to be linked with successful completion of a college degree in any field of study (Adelman, 1999 and Hill, 2006) • higher level of high school math = higher likelihood of completing college degree**Working memory is acknowledged to hold 7± 2 items or bits**of information at a time (Kalet, 2005). • Working memory can only hold this information for about 15-20 seconds (McGee & Wilson, 1984). • Automaticity: the ability to perform a skill automatically or unconsciously • Fluency in reading is affected by automaticity; if reading more symbols is required to distinguish numbers from letters, fluency can suffer.**Upper Cell Numbers**• The fundamental shortcoming in the development of UEB is the use of upper cell numbers which creates conflict with many other symbols in both literary and mathematical notation. • Use of numbers in the upper part of the braille cell greatly adds to the length of mathematical expressions, especially in algebra, linear algebra, and calculus, where alphabet-number combinations are frequent(20 – 35% more characters than Nemeth Code) (Knowlton & Wetzel, 2006).**Lower Cell Numbers**• Nemeth Code’s use of lower cell numbers allows the upper part of the braille cell to be used for mathematical functions, critical to the overall successful use of the code for mathematics (Supalo, 2012). • UEB’s use of upper cell numbers introduces ambiguity by using the same symbols for numbers and letters; this creates a need for a second symbol to distinguish between them.**Concerns from a Blind Computer Programmer**• English itself is far from unified. • Practicality of braille unification in the United States • Use of upper numbers in UEB • Computer Braille Code (CBC) -- Chris Gray, www.unifiedbrailleforall.com**Why We Think UEB is Problematic**• Upper cell numbers • Numerous new indicators • Longer expressions • Insertion of braille grouping symbols that do not appear in print • Use of terminology that is not used by mathematics teachers • Ambiguity of how to write fractions dependent upon the presence of variables.

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