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Policies and Institutional Structure for Social Protection in Urban India. Darshini Mahadevia CEPT University Paper Presented At The Research Meeting On Social Protection Policies In South Asia, 18-19 March 2010, New Delhi Organized By ICSSR And UNESCO. Social Protection Concepts.
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Policies and Institutional Structure for Social Protection in Urban India Darshini Mahadevia CEPT University Paper Presented At The Research Meeting On Social Protection Policies In South Asia, 18-19 March 2010, New Delhi Organized By ICSSR And UNESCO
Social Protection Concepts • Promotional • Protectional • Transformational
Policies, Programmes and Schemes - 1 Promotional Social Protection • 1 Water Supply and Sanitation Programmes/ Schemes • JNNURM – Two components, but Basic Services for the Urban Poor (BSUP) • Low Cost sanitation • Slum Development • National Urban Housing and Habitat Policy • BSUP and Integrated Housing and Slum Development Programme (IHSDP) • City specific slum improvement and upgradation programmes such as the Slum Networking Programme (SNP), extension of individual Household level services under 90:10 scheme or similar ones, schemes of slum upgradation funded by international development agencies such as DFID, World Bank, etc. • Rajiv Awaas Yojana – Affordable housing and land tenure
Policies, Programmes and Schemes - 2 • Transport programmes – Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) in some cities, however, it is not affordable to the bottom 30 per cent of urban population; and National Urban Transport Policy • Health care – No specific urban programme unless the National Urban Health Mission comes (This has privatisation thrust and hence reach deabtable) • Education • Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan • State level programmes if any • NGO led programmes for special groups • Social Security • Building and Other Construction Workers Act, 1996; • NGO led insurance programmes, e.g. Vimo SEWA • Employment • Swarna Jayanti Shehri Rojgar Yojana • Individual state level scheems such as Umeed in Gujarat
Policies, Programmes and Schemes - 3 Transformational Social Protection • Land Tenure regularization – Only in two states, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan • De facto land tenure extension – In Gujarat through SNP and all states through cut-off dates • Micro finance programmes of the NGOs
Increasing Vulnerabilities • Increased demolitions and displacements in large cities • Displacements of hawkers and livelihood disruptions • Privatization of basic services • Pushing out of the poor to the periphery of the city and lack of affordable transport options • Unwillingness of the ULBs to extend de facto tenure security as urban land has become very valuable • Increase in urban violence • Flooding and inundation every monsoon and damage and destruction of habitats
Institutional Issues • Defining urban entity, its boundaries and jurisdictions of ULBs • Changing urban boundaries • Multiplicity of governance institutions • Multiplicity of service delivery institutions and lack of coordination among them • Lack of powers (financial and legislative) for performing social development and security functions • Lack of institutions for social development and social security • Large presence of Non-state Actors, their coordination among themselves and with the State, accountability and transperancy
Urban Citizenship • Who is urban citizen • Urban citizenship defined by: • Legality of dwelling unit – defined by town planning legislation and municipal bye-laws • Cut-off dates and ID Cards based on the cut-off dates for the informal housing settlements • ULB notifications • Administrative tools such as property tax bills • Welfare measures extensions such as water supply & sanitation • Voter ID Card
Issues • Need for flexible and inclusive definition of urban citizenship • Right to basic shelter, universal access to water and sanitation irrespective of land tenure • Process of giving de facto land tenure • Urban Local Body (ULB) to be converted to Urban Local Government (ULG) with all functions, (not just physical planning and four basic services provision) – water supply, sewerage, storm water drain, solid waste management and footpaths and roads), to be vested with it. • All the social development and social security funds to be vested with the ULG then