what is the extent and consequences of ligustrum sinense invasion l.
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What Is The Extent and Consequences of Ligustrum sinense Invasion By Alex Neville Origins Ligustrum sinense is commonly known as Chinese Privet. Introduced to the US in 1850 Uses Ornamental Hedge, Mass Plantings, Single for floral displays Plant Characteristics

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origins
Origins
  • Ligustrum sinense is commonly known as Chinese Privet.
  • Introduced to the US in 1850
slide3
Uses
  • Ornamental
  • Hedge, Mass Plantings, Single for floral displays
plant characteristics
Plant Characteristics
  • Member of the Olive Family (Oleacea)
  • Flowers in May
  • Fruit is toxic to humans
  • Cause symptoms such as nausea, headache, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, and low blood pressure and body temperature
  • Floral odors cause respiratory irritation
the threat
The Threat
  • Rapid maturation
  • Prolific seed production
  • Reproduce vegetatively using suckers
  • Can tolerate wide range of light and soil conditions
  • Quickly invades disturbed habitats
newly colonized areas
Newly Colonized Areas
  • The rapid and recent spread in Oklahoma
expansion
Expansion
  • Chinese Privet is thought to have escaped cultivation by the 1930’s

Current Distribution

effects
Effects
  • Has the ability to out-compete and eventually displace other plant species
  • Can reduce plant diversity
  • Can therefore reduce the diversity of plant-dependent species
specific cases
Specific Cases
  • According to the U.S. Fish and Wild Life Service Chinese Privet is one of the major factors pushing Schweintz’s Sunflower towards extinction.
specific cases10
Specific Cases
  • A study done in the UCA Nature Preserve found 19 out of 20 randomly selected 3 m by 3 m plots in the riparian zone contained privet
specific cases11
Specific Cases
  • Effects of Ligustrum sinense Lour. (Chinese Privet) on Abundance and Diversity of Songbirds and Native Plants in a Southeastern Nature Preserve by Joshua Wilcox and Christopher Beck
  • “In contrast, abundance and richness of native plants were reduced in high privet-density plots. Our results suggest that removal of privet would improve native plant communities.”
control
Control
  • Extremely difficult once privet is established
  • Due to:
    • Large seedbank
    • Seeds are spread by birds
    • Need to remove underground parts as well
control13
Control
  • When in small numbers, removal by hand
  • Direct herbicide treatments
  • Basal-bark or cut-surface treatments
  • Must avoid disturbance for a year afterwards, to allows the herbicide to take out the whole plant
  • Most effective treatment is cutting, then application of herbicide to the stump
  • Fire is not feasible, since the disturbance it provides allow for increased invasion by privet.
    • Do UCA prairie burns aid in expanding privet populations?
controls
Controls
  • Biological controls
  • Macrophya punctumalbum is a known pest in Europe
  • Privet is susceptible to Pseudocercospora ligustri, which causes fungal leaf spot
  • Also vulnerable to common root crown bacteria, Agrobacterium tume-faciens
summary
Summary
  • Chinese Privet is a highly invasive exotic species
  • The plant has spread through most of the southeast
  • Consequences of invasion are reduced plant diversity
  • Reduction of privet numbers is essential to maintain diversity
  • Control of privet populations is very difficult and labor intensive
  • Best control is cutting the plant, and then applying herbicide to the stump
sources
Sources
  • http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1656%2F1528-7092(2007)6%5B535%3AEOLSLC%5D2.0.CO%3B2&ct=1
  • http://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/doc/pg_lisi.doc
  • http://www.invasive.org/eastern/species/3035.html
  • http://www.thewildclassroom.com/biodiversity/problemplants/species/Chinese%20Privet.htm