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VoX What is X ? . VoX. VoFR – why?. FR is the most mature of PSNs many enterprises already have FR network convergence: infrastructure, management FR can be global price not dependent on distance typically pay for committed rate so get VoFR for free !. VoX. VoFR – how?.

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vofr why

VoX

VoFR – why?
  • FR is the most mature of PSNs
  • many enterprises already have FR network
  • convergence: infrastructure, management
  • FR can be global

price not dependent on distance

  • typically pay for committed rate

so get VoFR for free !

vofr how

VoX

VoFR – how?

Frame Relay

Data Link Connnection

FRAD

FRAD

Network

vofr protocols

VoX

VoFR Protocols

Audio

Control & Management

G.711

G.726

G.729

FAX

FR

Connection Management

FR LMI

Q.933 A

FRF.11

Q.922 Switching and Processing

Physical Layer (Serial Port)

slide5

VoX

FRF-11 Requirements

Service

Class

1

Class

2

high speed links

low speed links (64Kbps)

Primary

Payload

Type

Default

Mandatory:

Mandatory:

Voice

-

EADPCM – G.

727

-

CS

ACELP

-

G.

729/

G.

729

Algorithm

-

Transmit rate

32

Kbps

AnnexA

-

Receive rate

32

Kbps,

24

Kbps,

16

Kbps

Other Voice

Optional:

Optional:

-PCM

-

G.

711

;

-

MP

-

MLQ G.

723

.

1

-ADPCM-G.

726

-

LD

-

CELP

-

G.

728

Data

Optional

Optional

Fax

Optional

Optional

Signaled

Payload

Type

Dial Digits

Optional

Mandatory

CAS

Mandatory

Mandatory

AIS

Mandatory

Mandatory

Encoded FAX

Optional

Optional

voatm why

VoX

VoATM – why?
  • ATM is used in access and core networks
  • ATM supports QoS

and so is more fitted for voice than other PSNs

  • convergence: infrastructure, management
  • carriers can deploy ATM to cabinets

achieve pair-gain

voatm how

VoX

PublicATM

Network

PC

VoATM – how?

FAX

PBX

E1

Bridge/Router

ETH

2xE1

Headquarters

FAX

E1

E3

E1

PBX

PBX

E1

ETH

E1

ETH

Bridge/Router

ETH

Bridge/Router

E1

ManagementStation

PBX

voatm protocols

VoX

VoATM Protocols

Audio

Signaling & Management

ATM Connection

Management

G.711

G.726

G.728

G.729

FAX

ATM UNI 3.1

SSCF Q.2130

Proprietary

Voice Protocol

SSCOP Q.2110

AAL5

AAL1/AAL2

ATM Layer

voatm options

VoX

VoATM Options
  • AAL1 unstructured circuit emulation (CES)
  • AAL1 structured circuit emulation (CES)
  • AAL1 dynamic bandwidth allocation (DB-CES)
  • AAL2 variable bit rate VoATM
  • AAL5 proprietary variable bit rate VoATM
iwf functionality for atm trunking

VoX

IWF Functionality for ATM Trunking

Call Handling

CAS Signaling

IWF-IWF

Signaling

ATM Signaling/NM

for Provisionning

IWF-IWF

CAS/DTMF Signaling

Nx64 Kbps

CAS Supervisory

& DTMF Address

Signaling

Mapping

Function

Voiceband Processing

DSS2

- Echo Cancellation

- Idle Pattern Detection

- Silence Suppression

- Bad cell/frame interpolation

- Voice Compression

- Fax/modem detection

- Fax/modem relay

AAL1/2

SAAL

AAL1/2

ATM

AAL2

PHY

ATM Interface

Synchronuous

Timing

PHY

T1/E1 PBX

voip why

VoX

VoIP – why?
  • IP coverage has become universal
  • price not dependent on distance

may not be dependent on duration

  • new features possible
    • web call centers
    • whiteboard
    • video conferencing
voip protocols

VoX

VoIP protocols

Once upon a time

Unix users conversed over LANs

first official VoIP was VocalTec

first standard was H.323 suite

IETF came up with SIP

sometimes MGCP or MEGACO enough

h 323 vs sip

VoX

H.323 vs SIP

SIP

  • user agent (UAC,UAS)
  • GW
  • conferencing
  • registrar, redirect server
  • proxy
  • SDP
  • extensions

H.323

  • terminal
  • GW
  • MCU
  • gatekeeper
  • H.245 channel
  • audio, video, data
some itu t voip standards

VoX

Some ITU-T VoIP Standards

H.320: Multimedia conferencing on ISDN

H.321: H.320 over ATM

H.322: H.320 over iso-ethernet LANs

H.323: Multimedia conferencing on Packet Nets

H.324: Multimedia conferencing on POTS

H.225 - Call Signaling, PDU, Packetization

H.245 - System Control

T.120 - Data and Conference Control

slide15

VoX

Link

Physical

H.323 Protocols

Call Establishment And Control

Presentation

speech coder

DTMF

Addressing

Addressing

H.225

RAS

H.225

Q.931

DNS

RTP/RTCP

DNS

H.245

UDP

TCP

IP

h 323 network

VoX

H.323 Network

H.323

Endpoint

H.323

Gatekeeper

H.323

Proxy

GATEWAY

H.320

(over ISDN)

Switched

Circuit Network

(POTs & ISDN)

Internet

H.324

(over POTS)

Speech-Only

(telephones)

H.323

Endpoint

voip sip

VoX

VoIP – SIP

H.323 is a telephony-type protocol

SIP is a more standard IP protocol (similar to http)

INVITE sip:6455389@rad.co.il SIP/2.0

From: VoP student

To: Yaakov (J) Stein

Call-ID: 5551212@bynet-academy.co.il

CSeq: 1 INVITE

Subject: How to use SIP

Content-Type: application/sdp

ACK sip: vopstudent@bynet-academy.co.il SIP/2.0

etc.

voip sip18

VoX

VoIP – SIP

CONFERENCE MANAGEMENT APPLICATIONS

MEDIA AGENTS

CONFERENCE SETUP AND DISCOVERY

CONFERENCE CONTROL

AUDIO

VIDEO

SHARED APPS

SDP

RTP

RTCP

DISTRIBUTED CONTROL

RELIABLE MULTICAST

RSVP

SAP

SIP

HTTP

SMTP

UDP

TCP

UDP

IP and IP MULTICAST

Link

Physical

mgcp and megaco

VoX

MGCP and MEGACO

MEGACO

  • MG, MGC
  • termination
  • context (N terminations)
  • signals (MGC->MC)
  • events (MG-> MGC)
  • text or binary grammar
  • SDP
  • even more packages

MGCP

  • MG, MGC
  • endpoint
  • connection (2 endpoints)
  • signals (MGC->MC)
  • events (MG-> MGC)
  • text grammar
  • SDP
  • packages
vodsl why

VoX

VoDSL – why?
  • DSL uses existing under-utilized last-mile
  • residential customers already universally connected
  • can converge telephony and Internet
  • voice is the killer-app, voice supplies revenues
  • CLECs can compete with ILECs w/o rebuilding
  • CLECs need to purchase far fewer Class-5 switches
  • new features can be offered
vodsl how

VoX

VoDSL – how?

ATM

V.5.2

Voice

Gateway

PSTN

Public ATM

Network

ATM

DSLAM

BAS

ATM

IP

ATM

xDSL

Internet

IAD

ATM

xDSL

IAD

tdmoip why

VoX

TDMoIP – why?
  • VoIP has very high overhead, due to session level encapsulation
  • VoIP only handles a small number of the PSTN features
  • VoIP introduces a large amount of delay
  • VoIP degrades voice quality
  • VoIP is expensive and requires “forklift upgrade”
  • TDMoIP adds low overhead, since it transfers trunks
  • TDMoIP is transparent to PSTN signaling
  • TDMoIP introduces minimal delay
  • TDMoIP does not compress voice, so only degradation is delay
  • TDMoIP is inexpensive and evolutionary
tdmoip how

VoX

TDMoIP – how?

TDMoIP uses UDP/IP

TDMoIP adds an additional pseudowire header

TDMoIP uses AAL1 or AAL2 adaptation

0

1

2

3

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0

1

LRZ

length

sequence number

FORMID

vocatv why

VoX

VoCATV – why?
  • CATV is existing under-utilized infrastructure
  • in many areas

majority of residential customers already connected

  • can converge TV, Internet and telephony
  • cable full-duplex upgraded for pay-per-view
  • can deliver 30 Mbps DS over 50 KM range
  • competes with DSL access
cable modems

VoX

Cable modems

CABLE

MODEM

CMTS

CABLE

MODEM

OPTICAL

FIBER

NODE

CATV

HEADEND

fiber

coax

COAXIAL

AMPLIFIER

CABLE

MODEM

shared BW

CABLE

MODEM

cable modems continued

VoX

Cable modems - continued

In US:

DOCSIS - Data Over Cable System Interface Specification

  • Specification for high-speed data-over-cable systems
  • IP based
  • DOCSIS 1.0 designed for transparent bi-directional traffic
  • DOCSIS 1.1 enhancements:
    • BW management / Prioritization features (QoS)
    • Higher security

Cable modems do not monitor each other so Ethernet not possible

Adopted by ITU as J.112

multiple standards

VoX

Multiple Standards

Incumbent standard for set-top boxes in Europe

DVB/DAVICDigital Broadcast Video / Digital Audio Video Council

This standard is based on ATM

DVB2.0 “EuroModem” adopted by ETSI as ETS-300800

European Cable Consortium supports EuroDOCSIS

DOCSIS with DVB-compliant physical layer

IEEE developed 802.14

not gained support, but may be the next generation

vocatv

VoX

VoCATV

CableLabs added other protocols for VoCATV

  • NCS Network Call Signaling
  • MGCP
  • IPSec authentication (DES)
  • Optional fax-relay service

And additional features

  • BTI Broadband Telephony Interfaces billing
  • 4 hour lifeline service