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“Three Cycle System in the Framework of Bologna Process”, Summer School, Yerevan, Armenia, 2008 The Bologna Process 1999-2008 - path of continuous development. Algirdas Vaclovas Valiulis , Bologna expert, Lithuania. Beginning.
“Three Cycle System in the Framework of Bologna Process”,Summer School, Yerevan, Armenia, 2008The Bologna Process 1999-2008 - path of continuous development
Algirdas Vaclovas Valiulis,
Bologna expert, Lithuania
At the Lisbon summit in March 2000, European Union leaders set out a new strategy to modernize Europe.
During the meeting the Heads of State or Government launched a "Lisbon Strategy" aimed at making the European Union the most competitive economy in the world and achieving full employment by 2010.
This strategy rests on three pillars:
The mid-term review held in 2005 showed that the objectives to become muddled and that the results achieved had been unconvincing.
In February 2005 EC refocused the Lisbon Strategy making growth and employment in Europe the immediate target.
Two main targets were put:
The Bologna Process is the process of creating the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) and is based on cooperation between ministries, higher education institutions, students and staff from 46 countries, with the participation of international organisations.
The Bologna Declaration is a pledge signed 1999 by 29 European countries to reform thestructures of their higher education systems in a convergent way.
It is a commitment freely taken by each signatory country to reform its own highereducation system or systems in order to create overall convergence at European level.
The Bologna process aims at creating convergence and, thus, is not a path towards the“standardisation” or “uniformisation” of European higher education.
The fundamentalprinciples of autonomy and diversity are respected.
The Declaration reflects a search for a common European answer to commonEuropean problems.
The processoriginates from the recognition that in spite of theirvaluable differences, European higher education systems are facing common internal andexternal challenges.
The Bologna Declaration is not just a political statement, but a bindingcommitment to an action programme:
The Declaration wants to increase the international competitiveness of the European system of highereducation.
The signatory countries explicitly expresstheir goal to ensure that the European higher education system acquires aworldwide degree of attractiveness equal to Europe’sextraordinary cultural andscientific traditions.
The Declaration invites European institutions to compete more resolutely than in the past for students,influence, prestige and money in the worldwide competition of universities.
The 29 signatory countries committed to attain the Declaration’s objectives will “pursuethe ways of intergovernmental cooperation”, in collaboration with higher educationinstitutions and associations.
Ministers have agreed to meet regularly in order toassessprogress achieved and to agree on new steps to be taken.
They have also established a specific follow-up structure with a mandate to prepare the assessment documents and to facilitate and coordinate the action needed to advance thegoalsof the Bologna Declaration.
A Commission (2006) urges Member States to press on with the modernisation of Europe’s universities.
The aim is to increase universities’ contribution to the Lisbon Agenda for more growth, and more and better jobs.
Europe’s 4000 universities have enormous potential, much of which unfortunately goes untapped because of various rigidities and hindrances.
The Commission is urging Member States to free up the EU’s substantial reservoir of knowledge, talent and energy with immediate, in-depth and coordinated change: from the way in which higher education systems are regulated and managed, to the ways in which universities are governed.
Knowledge and innovation are the engines of sustainable growth in Europe today, and universities are crucial for achieving the goals set out by the European Council. However, there are important weaknesses in the performance of European higher education institutions compared to main competitors, notably the USA.
Although the average quality of European universities is rather good, they are not in a position to deliver their full potential to boost economic growth, social cohesion and more and better jobs.
In order to respond to the invitation contained in the
Bologna Declaration, the highereducation community needs to
be able to tell Ministers in a convincing way what kind of
European space for higher education it wants and is willing to
Universities andother institutions of higher education can
choose to be actors, rather than objects, ofthis essential process
1999 Bologna Declaration:
2001 Prague Communique:
2003 Berlin Communique:
2005 Bergen Communique:
2007 London Communique:
Quality Assurance and a European Register of QualityAssurance Agencies
2007 London Communique:
In London, Ministers also:
- the social dimension of the Bologna Process and on mobility;
- portability of grants and loans;
- qualifications frameworks;
- a European Register of quality assurance agencies
Armenia; Holy See;Romania;
Belgium; Ireland;Slovak Republic;
Croatia; Liechtenstein; Sweden;
Czech Republic;Luxembourg;"the former Yugoslav Republicof Macedonia“
At all 46 countries
Additional full member:
Applicants to the Bologna Process:
Priorities for 2009:
Looking forward to 2010 and beyond:
Picture of Bergen, venue of 2005 ministers summit and Armenia joining to Bologna Process
Thank You for attention
AČIŪ UŽ DĖMESĮ