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The Great Crystal Creation . Presented by Kendra Mallory Dr. Alfred Lee RET @IIT Summer 2005 Brooks Middle School . Introduction . Overview of of RET Chemical Engineer experience Introduction to engineering design through the manifestation of crystals for nutritional purpose.

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the great crystal creation
The Great Crystal Creation

Presented by

Kendra Mallory

Dr. Alfred Lee

RET @IIT

Summer 2005

Brooks Middle School

introduction
Introduction
  • Overview of of RET Chemical Engineer experience
  • Introduction to engineering design through the manifestation of crystals for nutritional purpose.
  • Review of crystallization use to produce protein crystals for biomedical applications.
the great crystal creation4

The Great Crystal Creation

Dear Mrs. Mallory,

I am in need of a special product. Can you propose to your chemical engineering team to design a sugar stirrer for coffee and tea products. Its should be appealing to the consumer as well as a new and exciting technology for the scientist.

Signed,

I.P. Freelin Corporation

what does an engineer do
What does an engineer do?
  • Conduct trains
  • Fix boilers
  • Design cars
slide6
Engineers have a hand in designing, creating, or modifying nearly everything we touch, wear, eat, see, and hear in our daily lives.
what is a chemical engineer
What is a chemical engineer?
  • a) An Engineer who manufactures chemicals,
  • b) A Chemist who works in a factory, or
  • c) A glorified Plumber?
a chemical engineer takes raw materials and turn them into the products we use everyday
A chemical engineer takes raw materials and turn them into the products we use everyday.
  • They produce soft drinks, pharmaceuticals, make-up and hair care products, food products, and even work to control pollution.
what is the engineering design process edp
What is the Engineering Design Process (EDP)?
  • One of the simple processes that engineers use to guide them through problem solving.
  • Even though it is a step-by-step process it is not always adhered to by practicing engineers.
  • EDP is a cycle and can begin at any step in the cycle.
  • Engineers most often work in teams to solve problems.

Ask

Improve Imagine

Create Plan

problem solving team work
Problem-Solving Team Work
  • Give me an examples of teams solving problems together.
  • Each role is important within the group and must focus on the overall goal.
  • Work towards solving a common goal is the key.
role of team members
Role of team members
  • Data Recorder
  • Keeps track and records all experimental data

Food Safety Manager

  • Monitors team members to ensure they are practicing safe food handling during experiment

Materials Handler

  • Manages station to ensure all materials and equipment are available for team members

Group Leader

  • Manages group to ensure they are on task and on time
project agenda
Project Agenda

Introduced to design challenge

Groups assigned and roles discussed

Start working on Engineering Design Process as a team

Complete activities 2-6

Begin design challenge experiments

Begin to develop advertisement for product in the form of a commercial

Finish product and package it

Prepare for final advertisement commercial

what about ethics and engineering
What about Ethics and Engineering?
  • It’s all about being honest and trusting that people make moral decisions
  • Having a moral duty and obligation to consider safety during the design process
  • Do you trust that everything you consume have been handled safety
  • Food safety inspectors monitors that safe handling is practiced
real world ethics and engineering
Real World Ethics and Engineering
  • Formations of polymorphs (poly-many) (morph-form) caused during drug manufacturing caused major problems for consumers, pharmaceutical industry and the FDA (Food and Drug Administration)

http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OA/foodsafetymobile/mobilegame.swf

  • Discuss the point of view of each in this case scenario
what is a crystal
What is a crystal?
  • A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions.
  • The process of making crystals are called crystallization
  • Minerals are chemical crystals
what is so important about solutions and saturation
What is so important about solutions and saturation?
  • A solution is solids or gases that are dissolved in a liquid
  • Concentration is the amount of one substance (e.g.solute) within in a system (e.g.solvent)
  • A solute is the substance to be dissolved (sugar). The other is a solvent. The solvent is the one doing the dissolving (water).
  • When a solvent can no longer dissolve a solute it is saturated.
  • When a solution is heated up, it can dissolve more solid materials which it is called a supersaturated solution.

http://www.chem4kids.com/files/matter_solution.html

how does the concentration and temperature of a solution affect crystal growth
How does the concentration and temperature of a solution affect Crystal Growth?

Crystals can only be produced under certain conditions

  • Solution must be super saturated in order for crystals to come out of solution.
  • The slower the process of a solution cooling will yield larger crystals.
how does crystals form
How does crystals form?
  • Crystals start growing by a process called "nucleation“ (e.g. seed for growing a plant).
  • After solution is saturated solid materials form.
  • Molecules form a special arrangement in a repeated pattern (crystal).
why do different crystals have different shapes and sizes
Why do different crystals have different shapes and sizes?
  • Shape is dependent on arrangement of molecular structure
  • Size is dependent on rate of growth along the axes a,b &c
slide23
Crystals are classified into systems based on the angle their bonds form.

*7 common systems

Isometric, Hexagonal, Tetragonal, Trigonal, Triclinic, Monoclinic, Orthorhombic

what crystal system does this mineral belong to why
What crystal system does this mineral belong to? Why?
  • Hexagonal
  • 3 equilateral axes intersect at angels of 60o , 1 vertical axis intersect at 90o to equilateral axes.
  • Hexa-six

Quartz

Beryl

http://www.minerals.net/glossary/glossary.htm

what crystal system does this mineral belong to why25
What crystal system does this mineral belong to? Why?

GYPSUM

MONOCLINIC

  • 3 unequal axes and 1 unequal intersection that is not at 90o
  • Mono-one

http://www.minerals.net/glossary/glossary.htm

what crystal system does this mineral belong to why26
What crystal system does this mineral belong to? Why?

Sugar

Isometric

  • 3 axes are at right angles, all sides equal length.
  • Iso- same

http://www.minerals.net/glossary/glossary.htm

what crystal system does this mineral belong to why27
What crystal system does this mineral belong to? Why?

Tetragonal

  • 3 axes are at right angels, only 2 lateral axes are equal length and it has 4 sides.
  • Tetra-four

WULFENITE

http://www.minerals.net/glossary/glossary.htm

what crystal system does this mineral belong to why28
What crystal system does this mineral belong to? Why?

ORTHORHOMBIC

  • 3 unequal axes all at right angles to each other
  • Ortho-unequal

TANZANITE

http://www.minerals.net/glossary/glossary.htm

what crystal system does this mineral belong to why29
What crystal system does this mineral belong to? Why?

Amazonite

Trigonal

  • 3 equal length axes, 3 equal intersections (not 90o)
  • Tri- three

Note:

Hexagonal but with 3 sides not 6

http://www.minerals.net/glossary/glossary.htm

what crystal system does this mineral belong to why30
What crystal system does this mineral belong to? Why?

Triclinic

  • 3 unequal axes and 3 unequal intersections not at 90o
  • Tri-three

http://www.minerals.net/glossary/glossary.htm

slide31

Using your 3-D structures identify the following into rightful system:

Picture 1

Isometric

Picture 2

Tetragonal

Picture 3

Hexagonal

Picture 4

Trigonal

Picture 5

ORTHORHOMBIC

Picture 6

MONOCLINIC

Picture 7

TRICLINIC

what do atoms and molecules have to do with it
What do atoms and molecules have to do with it?
  • Every substance on earth is made of matter.
  • Atomsare the building blocks of all matter and can be classified into elements.
  • Elements are matter made of only one kind of atom.
  • Different elements bond together to form molecules.
  • A bond is a force that hold atoms together.
  • Internal molecular structure gives crystals their shape.
  • Minerals are crystal of different chemicals
symbols used to communicate
Symbols used to communicate
  • Elements have chemical symbols, short one or two letters represents it (e.g. H=Hydrogen)
  • A molecular formula are combinations of letters representing the elements present in a molecule. (e.g. H2O)
compare and contrast properties of salt and sugar
Compare and Contrast Properties of Salt and Sugar
  • Salt and sugar share a lot of similar characteristics.
  • Devise a way to check to identify them without tasting.
  • Explain how evaporation is one of the few techniques to produce crystals.
classify each into system
Classify each into system

Magnified 5X

Sugar or Salt

classify each into system38
Classify each into system

Magnified 20X

Sugar or Salt

what is that
What is that?

Sugar

Salt

analysis of data
Analysis of Data
  • List all of the positive data for maximum growth.
  • List problems and try to write solutions for each.
  • Design a method to grow crystals to achieve optimal results.
  • Take the Crystal Challenge!!
where do i go from here
Where do I go from here?
  • You must grow your rock candy within the shortest time and be as cost efficient as possible.
  • Prepare your group advertisement and test taste.
  • Insure that ethics is a central component in your design project.
what should i give the teacher
What should I give the teacher?
  • Your Team’s Engineering Design Process
  • Your data collected from your project
  • Your product with packing
  • Your research
  • Your commercial
  • Your Done!!!!