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SOC3073 Sociology of Community: Emergence of Cities. Devotions.

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soc3073 sociology of community emergence of cities

SOC3073 Sociology of Community:Emergence of Cities

© 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

devotions
Devotions

“And now let Pharaoh look for a discerning and wise man and put him in charge of the land of Egypt. Let Pharaoh appoint commissioners over the land to take a fifth of the harvest of Egypt during the seven years of abundance. They should collect all the food of these good years that are coming and store up the grain under the authority of Pharaoh, to be kept in the cities for food. This food should be held in reserve for the country, to be used during the seven years of famine that will come upon Egypt, so that the country may not be ruined by the famine.”

Genesis 41:33-36 (NIV)

© 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

emergence of cities
Emergence of Cities

References

Childe, V. Gordon. 1950. “The Urban Revolution.” Town Planning Review 21:4-7.

Palen, J. John. 2002. The Urban World. 6th ed. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies. Incorporated.

© 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

emergence of cities4
Emergence of Cities

Two Theoretical Approaches

  • Human Ecology (Order Paradigm)
    • This theoretical approach will be used for most of this chapter
  • Political Economy (Conflict Paradigm)

© 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

human ecology
Human Ecology
  • Human ecology (for our field of study--urban ecology) studies the physical ecosystem of society--in this case the urban area

© 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

human ecology6
Human Ecology

Definition of Ecosystem

A natural unit in which there is an interaction of an environmental and a biotic system--that is, a community together with its habitat. At the upper extreme, the whole earth is a world ecosystem.

© 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

human ecology7
Human Ecology

In biology, the composition of various life forms is determined by the more “dominant” life forms. Did you ever notice that the vegetation on the ground in a dense woods is quite different than the vegetation in an open field? Did you know that the types of animals can be different. Trees are usually a dominant life form--when there is a large cluster of trees--those trees “determine” what types of life forms are going to “co-exist” within the same space.

© 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

human ecology8
Human Ecology

Human ecology studies the “ecosystem” of the physical part of society. Many physical components of human society have “ecosystem” relationships.

© 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

human ecology9
Human Ecology

For example: When an urban area grows to a certain size---it becomes “dominant” and changes the social activities in the outlying areas well beyond the legal city limits.

Compare Mount Vernon’s impact on Centerburg as opposed to Columbus’s impact on Centerburg Note: Centerburg is closer to Mount Vernon than Columbus----and Mount Vernon is the county seat for Knox County (both cities are located within Knox County)---which one is more dominant?

© 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

human ecology10
Human Ecology

Urban ecologists study urban spatial and social growth patterns in terms of changes in the system, using a set of categories known as the “ecological complex.”

© 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

human ecology ecological complex
Human Ecology:Ecological Complex
  • The ecological complex identifies the relationship between four concepts or classes of variables
    • Population
    • Organization
    • Environment
    • Technology
    • Sometimes “Social” is added as a fifth concept

POETorPOETS

© 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

human ecology ecological complex poet
Human Ecology:Ecological Complex: POET
  • Population
    • Refers not only to the number of people but also to growth or decrease through either migration or natural increase
      • Example: Houston, Texas has grown due to immigration trends from the frost belt cities (1975 to the present)
    • Also refers to the composition of the population by variables such as age, sex, and race

© 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

human ecology ecological complex poet13
Human Ecology:Ecological Complex: POET
  • Organization (or social structure)
    • The way urban populations are organized according to social stratification, the political system, and the economic system.
      • Example: Houston’s political and related tax system encourages population growth through immigration

© 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

human ecology ecological complex poet14
Human Ecology:Ecological Complex: POET
  • Environment
    • Refers to the natural environment and the built environment
      • Natural environment
        • Houston’s absence of snow
      • Built environment
        • Includes streets, parks, buildings, etc.

© 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

human ecology ecological complex poet15
Human Ecology:Ecological Complex: POET
  • Technology
    • Refers to tools, inventions, ideas, and techniques that directly impact on urban growth and form.
      • Example: Houston could not be the city it is today without both private automobiles and air-conditioning.

© 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

human ecology ecological complex poet16
Human Ecology:Ecological Complex: POET

Independent and Dependent Variables

Each of the four variables is causally interdependent; depending on the way a problem is stated, each may serve as either an independent (or thing-explaining) or a dependent (thing-to-be-explained) variable.

In sociological research, organization is commonly viewed as the “dependent variable” to be influenced by the other three “independent variables,” but a more sophisticated view of organization sees it as reciprocally related to the other elements of the ecological complex.

© 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

human ecology ecological complex poet17
Human Ecology:Ecological Complex: POET

Strength and Weakness

  • Strength
    • A major advantage of the ecological complex as a conceptual scheme is its simplicity, since economy of explanation is a basic scientific goal.
  • Weakness
    • Perhaps the greatest limitation of the original ecological complex is that it subsumes cultural values under the variable of organization, while a very strong case can be made that culture should be a separate reference variable in its own right. POETS

© 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

human ecology ecological complex poet18
Human Ecology:Ecological Complex: POET

ICA: POET Worksheet

  • Step One
    • Spend 15 minutes completing the worksheet
  • Step Two
    • Break into groups and spend 10 minutes sharing responses from the worksheet
  • Step Three
    • General class discussion of worksheet

© 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

political economy
Political Economy

Political Economic Models

  • Based on the Conflict Paradigm
    • Historic connection to Karl Marx’s view of conflict (the “haves” versus the “have-nots”)

© 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

political economy20
Political Economy
  • All models have common characteristics
    • Urban growth is largely a consequence of capitalist economic system of capital accumulation
    • Conflict between classes
    • Economic exploitation of the powerless by the rich and powerful
    • Societal interaction is dominated by antagonistic social relationships
    • Social development is unstable in societies with antagonistic owner relationships
    • Power inequality is a basic element in societal relationships

© 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

political economy21
Political Economy

The capitalistic mode of production and capital accumulation are seen as being manipulated by real estate speculators and business elites for their private profit.

© 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

political economy22
Political Economy

Suburbanization, for example, would not be viewed as resulting from individual choices made possible by access to outer land through streetcars and automobiles, but rather as the deliberate decision of economic elites to disinvest in the city and to manipulate suburban real estate markets.

© 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

political economy23
Political Economy

Strength and Weakness

  • Strength
    • Attention to the economic elites on political decision making and the role played by real estate speculators
  • Weakness
    • The assumption that local government acts largely at the bidding of economic elites, and thus citizens’ wishes have little impact on growth patterns or local government

© 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

urban revolution first and second
Urban Revolution:First and Second

The first city was far more than an enlarged village--it was a clear break with the past, a whole new set of social institutions. . . It was “pre-eminently a social process, an expression more of change in man’s interaction with his fellows than in his interaction with his environment.”

© 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

urban revolution first and second25
Urban Revolution:First and Second

Once begun, the urban revolution created its own environment. Inventions that have made large settlements possible have been due to the city itself:

  • Writing
  • Accounting
  • Bronze
  • The solar calendar
  • Bureaucracy
  • Beginning of science

© 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

urban revolution first and second26
Urban Revolution:First and Second

Features of the First Urban Revolution

  • Permanent settlement in dense aggregations
  • Nonagriculturalists engaging in specialized functions
  • Taxation and capital accumulation
  • Monumental public buildings
  • A ruling class
  • The technique of writing
  • The acquisition of predictive sciences--arithmetic, geometry, and astronomy
  • Artistic expression
  • Trade for vital materials
  • The replacement of kinship by residence as the basis for membership in the community

(Childe 1950)

© 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

urban revolution first and second27
Urban Revolution:First and Second

The Second Urban Revolution

The cause of this revolution was- - - -

The Industrial Revolution

Primary contributing technology for the Industrial Revolution----in 1767 Watt invented a usable steam engine

© 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

urban revolution first and second28
Urban Revolution:First and Second

The second urban revolution was not the emergence of cities but rather the changes that for the first time made it possible for more than 10 percent of the population to live in urban places.

© 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

urban revolution the future third revolution
Urban Revolution:The Future Third Revolution

Dr. Bolender conjectures that the third urban revolution will be caused by the new technology commonly known as the. . .

Internet

Generically known as the world of cyberspace. This phenomena will impact both the urban world and the future of community and community development (to be discussed later in this course).

© 1999-2003 by Ronald Keith Bolender

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