Secondary Literacy Juley Harper, ELA Education Associate, DOE Denise Weiner, ELA Teacher in Residence, DOE
Who are you?? • I am a Special Education Teacher or Coordinator • I am a Content Area Teacher • I am a Secondary ELA Teacher • I am a Reading Teacher/Specialist • I am an Administrator • I am a School Psychologist • I have a good understanding of RTI • RTI is completely new to me • The RTI process makes me apprehensive • Our district has elementary RTI in place for Reading • Our district has a Universal Screening Tool in place at the Secondary Reading Level (GATES, DAR, SRI) • My district uses NWEA/MAP Assessment • My district has block scheduling • I have had PD in Learning Focused Strategies • I have had PD in CRISS strategies
Think about this… “Ensuring adequate ongoing literacy development for all students in the middle and high school years is a more challenging task than ensuring excellent reading education in the primary grades for two reasons: • Secondary school literacy skills are more complex, more embedded in subject matter and multi-faceted. • Adolescents are not universally motivated to read better or as interested in school-based reading as younger children.”
Are you a Tigger or an Eeyore? Randy Pausch, The Last Lecture http://download.srv.cs.cmu.edu/~pausch/
ELEMENTARY Focus on basic skills (learning to read) Elementary: 90 minute block every day One to Two teachers Typically enjoy reading Write creatively SECONDARY Secondary: Focus on content (reading to learn) 45 class daily, 90 min. every other day Five to Seven teachers Typically DO NOT enjoy reading Write essays and research High School Literacy Differs from Elementary School Literacy
Struggling Readers in middle and high school… • Are usually less fluent readers • Have much smaller sight word vocabularies • Are less familiar with word meanings • Have less conceptual and content knowledge • Have less practice with text structures and genres • Have fewer and less-developed comprehension strategies
Read The Passage Below: The Batsmen were merciless against the Bowlers. The Bowlers placed their men in slips and covers. But to no avail. The Batsmen hit one four after another along with an occasional six. Not once did their balls hit their stumps or get caught.
Answer these questions… • Who were merciless against the Bowlers? • Where did the Bowlers place their men? • Was the strategy successful? • Who hit an occasional six? • How many times did the Batsmen’s balls hit a stump? Subjects Matter- Every Teacher’s Guide to Content-Area Reading-Harvey Daniels and Steven Zemelman
Interventions You May Already Be Implementing • Strategic tutoring • Peer tutoring • Extended day opportunities • Pre Teaching • Re Teaching • Reading Logs • SSR/DEAR • KWL • CRISS Strategies • Remediation/Enrichment Classes
Collaboration Time • Interdisciplinary Teams • PLCs • Content Area Teams • Creative Scheduling • M,F-Content Meetings • T,TH-Team Meetings • W-6,2,2 Calls
Hurdles/Problems • Need more research at the HS level • Financial Concerns • Time for Interventions • Staff to provide Interventions • Literacy in the Content Areas-I don’t teach reading???? • Time to plan and collaborate • What do we do about grading? Credits? GPA? • Viewing Purchased instructional programs as Silver Bullets rather than aids to help well-trained teachers make informed decisions • Moving too quickly-taking on too many grade levels, tiers, or buildings in the first year • Lack of Parental involvement • PUBERTY!
Instructional Scheduling • The use of double instructional blocks • Skinny • Extended day opportunities • Class within a class • The practice of interventions in lieu of electives
Professional Development • Content Teachers learn selected strategies (e.g., paraphrasing, self-questioning, visual imagery, word identification, textbook usage, sentence development) • Learning Focused Strategies-PD is free • CRISS training • DE Reading and Writing Project (UD)
Content Literacy Continuum (CLC Model) • Used in VA state wide • Builds off powerful instructional planning and delivery within the core academic areas • Provides a continuum of research-validated, increased intensive intervention options through the use of ongoing assessment and monitoring • Secondary Literacy Intervention Program Guide • Targets middle and high school grades (5-12) • Based on research from University of Kansas Center for Research and Learning www.kucrl.org
The Florida Center for Reading Research • Walk Through rubrics for administrators • Webcasts and podcasts • Power points • Assessment Tools • Assessment Research • Strategies/Resources • Research Articles http://www.fcrr.org/
Major Points • Intervene early • Match interventions to student need • Base all decisions on evidence • DO WHAT IS BEST FOR STUDENTS!