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THERMODYNAMICS

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  1. THERMODYNAMICSWhat the high school science student should know to better understand nuclear energyFred Gunnerson, Ph.D.University of Idahogunner@if.uidaho.eduGNEP National Physics Teachers WorkshopIdaho Falls, ID July 15-20, 2007

  2. THERMODYNAMICS • ‘Zeroth Law’ (Temperature) • First Law (Energy) • Second Law (Entropy and the Heat Engine)

  3. 0th LawTemperature Measurement / Thermometer Calibration • What is Temperature? • Temperature scales • Thermal Equilibrium

  4. 1st Lawenergy / units / relation to forceCONSERVATION OF ENERGY Types of Energy Potential Kinetic Work = F x d Internal / Heat Nuclear (E=mc2 nucleon binding energy) Radiant (EM spectrum) Chemical Electrical Etc…… Uses of Energy • Electricity • Transportation • Propulsion • Etc… Sources of Energy Fossil Fuel Nuclear (fission & fusion) Renewable Etc…….

  5. Thot Heat Engine Work Tcold 2nd LawEntropy and the Heat Engine ηmax = 1 – (Tcold / Thot) Carnot Heat Engine

  6. A nuclear reactor is a source of heatA nuclear power plant is a heat engine HEAT is generated by fission and radioactive decay Heat boils water to steam, which turns a trubine, which turns a generator which makes electricity. Rankine Cycle

  7. A nuclear reactor is also a source of radiationsneutrons / gamma rays / x-rays / alpha-beta-gamma / etc. Isotope Production Materials R&D

  8. Nuclear Power for Hydrogen Production

  9. Fast-spectrum reactornuclear transmutaion: “burn the waste”

  10. NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLEAdvance Fuel Cycle Initiative - AFCI

  11. Possible Advantages of Fast Reactors Better use of fuels Less waste with shorter half-lives

  12. ADVANCED TEST REACTOR - ATR Advanced Fuels Testing oxide / nitride / carbide / inert matrix / MOX / etc. Materials Testing radiation damage / thermophysical properties / cross-sections / radiography / etc. Isotope production

  13. Thanks other questions?