THERMODYNAMICSWhat the high school science student should know to better understand nuclear energyFred Gunnerson, Ph.D.University of Idahogunner@if.uidaho.eduGNEP National Physics Teachers WorkshopIdaho Falls, ID July 15-20, 2007
THERMODYNAMICS • ‘Zeroth Law’ (Temperature) • First Law (Energy) • Second Law (Entropy and the Heat Engine)
0th LawTemperature Measurement / Thermometer Calibration • What is Temperature? • Temperature scales • Thermal Equilibrium
1st Lawenergy / units / relation to forceCONSERVATION OF ENERGY Types of Energy Potential Kinetic Work = F x d Internal / Heat Nuclear (E=mc2 nucleon binding energy) Radiant (EM spectrum) Chemical Electrical Etc…… Uses of Energy • Electricity • Transportation • Propulsion • Etc… Sources of Energy Fossil Fuel Nuclear (fission & fusion) Renewable Etc…….
Thot Heat Engine Work Tcold 2nd LawEntropy and the Heat Engine ηmax = 1 – (Tcold / Thot) Carnot Heat Engine
A nuclear reactor is a source of heatA nuclear power plant is a heat engine HEAT is generated by fission and radioactive decay Heat boils water to steam, which turns a trubine, which turns a generator which makes electricity. Rankine Cycle
A nuclear reactor is also a source of radiationsneutrons / gamma rays / x-rays / alpha-beta-gamma / etc. Isotope Production Materials R&D
Possible Advantages of Fast Reactors Better use of fuels Less waste with shorter half-lives
ADVANCED TEST REACTOR - ATR Advanced Fuels Testing oxide / nitride / carbide / inert matrix / MOX / etc. Materials Testing radiation damage / thermophysical properties / cross-sections / radiography / etc. Isotope production
Thanks other questions?