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Practice Scheduling. Emily H. Wughalter, Ed.D. Kin 266. A short chronology. Adams’ (1971) closed loop theory of motor learning Schmidt’s Criticisms of Adams’ theory Storage Novelty Gentile’s theory of motor learning (1972) Schmidt’s (1975) theory of motor learning

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practice scheduling

Practice Scheduling

Emily H. Wughalter, Ed.D.

Kin 266

a short chronology
A short chronology
  • Adams’ (1971) closed loop theory of motor learning
    • Schmidt’s Criticisms of Adams’ theory
      • Storage
      • Novelty
  • Gentile’s theory of motor learning (1972)
  • Schmidt’s (1975) theory of motor learning
  • Battig’s (1979) theory of contextual interference
    • John Shea and colleagues
    • Tim Lee and colleagues
novelty
Novelty
  • The transfer of a skill represents the ability to carry over procedures used to produce one skill in order to produce a newmotor skill. Essentially, because we live in a dynamic environment we require varying amounts of transfer even when performing the same skill twice.
storage
Storage
  • Criticisms were advanced regarding storage of motor plans and motor programs.
  • Motor learning and control theorists questioned the very nature of movement representation as hypothesized by Adams.
  • Adams (1971) hypothesized the storage of individual templates for each motor program as well as information related to the error detection and correction device.
slide5

Initial Conditions

Desired Outcome

Past

Actual

Outcomes

Past

Response

Specifications

Past

Sensory

Consequences

Recognition

Schema

Recall

Schema

Expected

Sensory

Consequences

Response

Specifications

Schmidt (1975). A schema theory of discrete motor learning. Psychological

Review, 82, 225-260.

schmidt s schema theory 1975
Schmidt’s Schema Theory (1975)
  • Schmidt’s theory is a response to Adam’s theory
  • The Schema model is designed to overcome the problems of novelty and storage inhabited in Adams’ model.
schema
Schema
  • A schema is a generalized abstraction for a movement class. A generalized motor program provides specific parameters that can be used to govern movement for a specific situation.
schema development
Schema Development
  • According to Schmidt (1975) four things are stored for schema formation.
    • initial conditions
    • response specifications (motor program commands)
    • sensory consequences of the response produced
    • outcome of the movement
variability of practice hypothesis
Variability of Practice Hypothesis

Paradigm

Constant Practice Group bbb…bbb…bbb…// bbb

Variable Practice Group aaa…ccc…ddd…//bbb

Note: The transfer task must be within the range of the originally practiced materials.

levels of processing craik lockhart 1972
Levels of ProcessingCraik & Lockhart (1972)
  • Meaningfulness
  • Familiarity
  • Compatibility
  • Elaboration
  • Encoding/Retrieval Specificity
  • Distinctiveness
battig s contextual interference theory 1979
Battig’s Contextual Interference Theory (1979)
  • Contextual interference is caused by the dynamic conditions created by the intrinsic and extrinsic factors related to the tasks or skills being learned. In the motor behavior literature scholars have operationalized this concept as blocked and random practice.
operationalization of contextual interference
Operationalization of Contextual Interference

Paradigm used by Shea & Morgan (1979)

BL aaa…bbb…ccc… //bac

RA acb…cab…bca…//cba

Retention was measured 10 minutes and 10 days later. Transfer was measured on a more difficult and less difficult transfer task.

slide15

Hypothetical model of Battig’s Contextual Interference Effect

Total

Time

Sec

Blocked

Random

Acquisition Recognition

TEST SESSION

lee magill 1983 paradigm
Lee & Magill (1983)Paradigm

ACQUISITION

Blocked AAA… BBB… CCC…

Serial ABC… ABC… ABC…

Random CAB… BCA… CBA…

RETENTION

BL/RA AAABBBCCC BACBCACAB

RA/BL BACBCACAB AAABBBCCC

explanations for the contextual interference effect
Explanations for the Contextual Interference Effect
  • Action Plan Reconstruction – Lee (1987) and Lee and Magill (1983, 1985) proposed that forgetting from short-term or working memory occurs between trials and thus reconstruction of the action plan occurs trial after trial.
  • Elaboration and Distinctiveness – Shea and Zimny (1983, 1988) explained the contextual interference effect through a processing view in which multiple and varied processing strategies are used in short-term or working memory. Thus processing in a random condition forces more elaborate and distinctive traces than a blocked condition
  • Retroactive Inhibition – The retroactive inhibition literature (Meeusen, 1987) helps to explain the contextual interference effect through a discussion of the implications of blocked practice on retention and transfer.