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Determination of the Influence of Different Training Methods on Performance and Retention of Helicopter Escape Training Albert Bohemier, Survival Systems Limited PRESENTED AT THE 48th IASST SAFETY SYMPOSIUM SEMINAR 22 November 2005, Brunei Darussalam Overview of Topic

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slide1

Determination of the Influence of Different Training Methods on Performance and Retention of Helicopter Escape Training

Albert Bohemier, Survival Systems Limited

PRESENTED AT THE 48th IASST

SAFETY SYMPOSIUM SEMINAR

22 November 2005, Brunei Darussalam

overview of topic
Overview of Topic
  • Algorithmic versus Heuristic training
  • Requirements for an acceptable device or simulator
  • Course training standard and course training plan
slide3

Factors Causing Fatalities

  • Injury
  • Disorderly evacuation
  • Underwater disorientation
  • Exposure
algorithmic training
Algorithmic Training
  • Also called “specific procedure” training
  • Personnel trained to rigorously follow a specific, precise, narrow procedure
  • The procedure becomes a muscle memory reflex
  • Instinct
heuristic training
Heuristic Training
  • Trainees are taught to solve previously, not before encountered problems “on the fly”
  • Trainees provided with experience in creative problem solving
importance of crash position
Importance of Crash Position
  • Reduces disorientation
  • Limits flailing injuries
  • Lessens buffeting and impact
  • Reduces risk of injury from flying debris
underwater breath holding in cold water
Underwater Breath-Holding in Cold Water
  • BHTw = 15.01 + 0.92 Tw
  • Examples:

Water = 25ºC, BH = 38.0 seconds

Water = 16ºC, BH = 29.7 seconds

Water = 1ºC, BH = 15.9 seconds

Hayward, J., Hay, C. and Matthews, B. et al. 1984: Temperature Effect on the Human Dive Response in Relation to Cold Water Near-Drowning, Journal of Applied Physiology, 1984, 56(1), 202-6.

underwater breath holding in warm water
Underwater Breath-Holding in Warm Water

Cheung, S., D’Eon, N. and Brooks, C. 2001: Breath-Holding Ability of Offshore Workers Inadequate to Ensure Escape From Ditched Helicopters, Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 72, 10, 912-8.

slide10

Underwater Disorientation

  • Visual
  • Gravity
  • Balance
  • Physical Reference
  • Perception
industry sponsored cranfield university study 1999 i
Industry-Sponsored Cranfield University Study, 1999 – I

“7.1.2 Type of Simulator

  • Simulators should have a representative roll rate that introduces the feeling of disorientation, in rush of water etc. to the trainee.
  • They should also have representative seats, harnesses and exits.”

Mills, A. and Muir, H. 1999: Executive Summary Final Report: Development of a Training Standard for Underwater Survival (research commissioned by the Shell Group).

industry sponsored cranfield university study 1999 ii
Industry-Sponsored Cranfield University Study, 1999 – II

“3. Ideally simulators should be capable of replicating cabins of the commonly used offshore helicopter types. In regions where only one type of helicopter is flown, it would be preferable if the simulator could represent this.”

Mills, A. and Muir, H. 1999: Executive Summary Final Report: Development of a Training Standard for Underwater Survival (research commissioned by the Shell Group).

shell s forthcoming simulator standards i
Shell’s Forthcoming Simulator Standards – I

“We anticipate that SEPCo’s future Water Survival / HUET training will require a simulator capable of satisfying the following criteria:

  • Simulator interior dimensions representative of helicopter types being flown (S-76, EC-135 and B-412).”

Excerpt from letter from John C. Le Bas, Logistics Manager, Shell Exploration and Production Company, to Bryan Aucoin, Occupational Safety and Training, New Iberia, LA, August 23, 2005.

shell s forthcoming simulator standards ii
Shell’s Forthcoming Simulator Standards – II

“b. Seating configurations, seat restraints, escape exit configurations and release mechanisms representative of helicopter types being flown.

c. Access doors and windows jettisonable from both inside and out.

d. Inversion rates representative of the roll rate of an actual helicopter sufficient to create the feelings of disorientation during the in-rush of water.”

Excerpt from letter from John C. Le Bas, Logistics Manager, Shell Exploration and Production Company, to Bryan Aucoin, Occupational Safety and Training, New Iberia, LA, August 23, 2005.

our industry needs disorientation test certification for helicopter underwater escape trainers
Our Industry Needs Disorientation Test Certification for Helicopter Underwater Escape Trainers
industry sponsored cranfield university study 1999 iii
Industry-Sponsored Cranfield University Study, 1999 – III

“7. Recommendations

7.1 Content of HUET Training

  • In order to provide trainees with sufficient skills to escape from an inverted helicopter they must meet the minimum training competency:

demonstrate the ability, underwater in an inverted HUET, to release a representative seat restraint and escape exit release mechanism and effect an escape unaided.”

Mills, A. and Muir, H. 1999: Executive Summary Final Report: Development of a Training Standard for Underwater Survival (research commissioned by the Shell Group).

problems with current industry wide standard
Problems With Current Industry-Wide Standard
  • Does not produce correct initial muscle memory reflex (crash position)
  • Does not produce muscle memory reflex to perform critical tasks inverted underwater
  • Does not produce muscle memory reflex of correct sequence
proposed minimal upgrades to opito standard
Proposed Minimal Upgrades to OPITO Standard
  • Trainees must demonstrate the ability to escape underwater from a submerged inverted approved or certified HUET from an appropriate crash position, locating the airframe before undoing their seat belt.
conclusion
Conclusion

In order to be certified to fly offshore over water in a helicopter, trainees must:

  • Receive algorithmic HUET training.
  • Demonstrate the ability to escape unassisted from an inverted, flooded, high-fidelity, approved simulated helicopter fuselage that has been proven to disorient and has been fitted with a range of realistic emergency exits.
  • Use approved CTS and CTP for Ditching training.