KNOWING ORCHIDS CULTIVATION (Species, propagation & planting)
POTENTIAL OF INDONESIAN RESOURCE • Beautiful landscape • Fertile soil • Expected of climate
INDONESIA AS A MEGABIODIVERSITY COUNTRY • Indonesia has about 4000 orchids species is distributed in many islands. • Kalimantan & Sumatera have about 986 orchids species and Java has the ones more than 971 species. • Maluku has about 123 species. • Irian jaya has about more than 1000 species (Dendrobium and Bulbophyllum)
Growing at elevations from sea level up to 3000 meters and temperature between up 8,7 °C to 32°C. • They are found on branches of trees at in tropical rain forests.
CARACTER OF ORCHIDS DISTRIBUTED • Cosmopolite orchid ; distributing caracter of orchids in whole Indonesian land (Dendrobium crumenatum, Spathoglottis plicata). • Endemic orchid ; distributing caracter of orchids in specific places. Phalaenopsis javanica grows in west Java, Cymbidium hartinahianum is found in North Sumatera, Vanda celebica is found in Sulawesi only.
TAXONOMY • Phyllum : Spermatophyta • Class : Angiospermae • Subclass : Monocotyledoneae • Ordo : Gynandrae • Family : Orchidaceae
ORCHIDS CARACTERISTIC • Foliage shape • Flower consist of ; - Sepal - Petal - Column - Labellum • Fruits • Seeds
FIGURE ORCHID SHAPE
CARACTERISTIC OF ORCHIDS GROWS • Epiphyte; type of plant which grows on another but isn’t a parasite & deriver its own nutrients from the air, rain, etc. • Saprophyte; (plant) any organism living on decaying or putrefied matter. • Terrestrial; (plant) living & growing on land • Lithotrof; type of plant which grows above stone.
GROWTH STRUCTURE IN ORCHID • Monopodial orchids such as Aerides, Phalaenopsis & Vanda have main stems which grow constantly. • Sympodial orchids, such as Bulbophyllum and Dendrobium have a main stem, or pseudobulb, which is produced annually and matures at the end of each growing season, often culminating with flowering.
ORCHIDS GENUS IN INDONESIA • Such as; DENDROBIUM, BULBOPYLLUM, COELOGYNE, CYMBIDIUM, GRAMMATOPHYLUM, PHALAENOPSIS, RENANTHERA, VANDA, AERIDES, RYNCOSTYLIS, PAPHIOPEDILUM, ERIA. • DENDROBIUM THE GREATES OF GENUS, ABOUT 1800. • ABOUT 900 GENUS ARE FOUND IN INDONESIA
Aerides odorata • About 20 species belong to this genus of monopodial epiphytes. • Aerides odorata is variable in colour, from deep pink to pure white.
Bulbophyllum biflorum_yellow • Over 2000 named species are included in this cosmopolitan genus, with flowers that come in all shapes, sizes and colour. • Most of these sympodial plants grow and lithophytesas epiphytes.
Cymbidium bicolor • Most of the species are terrestrial, with upright flower spikes bearing blooms in many colour. • In the lowlands, most cymbidium take to the trees as epiphytes, growing in high light.
Dendrobium • An amazing diversity of plant habit, flower form & colour is found in this large genus. • Quite a number of species produce new plants off the older pseudobulbs. these are called aerials or “keikis” a Hawaiian word which means baby.
Phalaenopsis amabilis • Most people would be familiar with Phalaenopsis, known as the “Moth Orchids”. • Many hybrids have been produced from the 50 or so wild species. • Most of these white hybrids have been derived from the magnificent “White Moth Orchid”, Phalaenopsis amabilis.
Paphiopedilum • The “Slipper Orchids” have long been highly prized in horticulture. • Some species are terrestrial, growing through the leaf litter on the forest floor, others are lithophytes which show a preference for limestone cliffs, while a number are epiphytes, & live in the major forks of suitable trees. • Most of the species produce a single flower.
Vanda tricolor • Vanda tricoloris a distinctive common species, found on rocks or trees on the fringes of lowland forest in Java. • It has perfumed flowers. • Monopodial plants grow and as epiphytes.
GROWTH CONDITION • Light, humidity, temperature. Kind of orchids Light absorbtion • Arachnis 100 • Renathera 100 • Vanda daun 40 - 50 • Cattleya 20 - 30 • Dendrobium 40 - 50 • Phalaenopsis 10 - 30 • Paphiopedilum daun bintik 10 - 30 • Paphiopedilum daun hijau 5 - 20 • Aerides 20 - 40
TEMPERATURE Kind of orchids Normal Temperature (°C) • Cattleya 20 • Cymbidium 25 • Dendrobium 25 • Paphiopedilum 20 • Phalaenopsis 21 • Vanda 30
GENERATIF PROPAGATION • Generatif Pollination parent male female
PREPARING INOCULATION CONSIST OF : • To provide a prominent seed. • To provide bottle, led & autoclve • Nutrient and equipment
How to inoculate ? • To sterilize into capurite solution, about 10 minutes. b. To remove into aquadest. c. To inoculate into medium (spread)
VEGETATIF PROPAGATION BY TISSUE CULTURE • Requirements ; a. Prominent explant b. Appropriate of medium c. Circumtance • Tissue culture rooms consist of; a. Preparation room b. Inoculation room c. Incubation room
Sterilization • To keep expant into 20% clorox solution, about 5 minutes, 10 % clorox solution about 5 minutes and to rinse by aquadest. Inoculation • To provide sterile explant with less size and one bud. Incubation and Multiplication • Explant is shaked on 100-200 rpm (shaker) in the long periode, room temperature. • Subculture Removed explant into new medium.
ORCHIDS PLANTING • To remove planlet in community pot (in 9-12 months after innoculation). - Dendrobium seedling better to control of light & humidity. - Each pot contains about up 25 to 30 plants.
2. Terrestrial type using medium composition involve; • Sand, soil, brick, manure, compost. • Vanda terres, its able to plant into earth. • Seedling is planted in large community (pot). • Removing explant up community pot to single pot. - How to remove ? - To prepare medium, consist of moss, brick,etc • Repotting. Why to repot? - need a larger medium - need much nutrients
Figure Single pot • Each pot has one plant which plant after about 4-6 months in community pot.
PLANTING (in pot) • Using in high quality pot. • Using stick to strengthen. • Using brick, moss, etc. HOW TO PLANT; • To conbine a stick & pot. • To mix medium composition. (brick) less than half pot. • To put plantlet on above medium. • To add moss later.
IT IS IMPORTANT TO NOTE THAT ; • Stem can’t be covered by medium. • Might be planted monopodial type in centre pot. • Different to monopodial, sympodial type need to close part of pot.
ORCHID MAINTENANCE • Watering; (to note) - Kind of water and pH level (5,6 – 6,0) - Medium, humidity, temperatur, pot type, species of orchids, phase of growth. • Fertilizer application • How to apply ? -Spread, by watering, spraying.
PLANT PROTECTION BY CONTROLING PEST AND DISEASE • Pest; acarina, red spider, ant. • Insecticide; diazenon, malathion, sumithion 1-3 cc/ liter water. • Disease; leaf spot, soft-rot, physiology disease. • Fungicide; teresan 3 g/ liter water, captan 2 g/ liter water, cuproxychloride 5 g/ liter water.