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Microlinguistic CA contnd . December 8, 2009. The elements of language juxtaposed for contrasting may be viewed as: Paradigms  Paradigmatic approach to contrasting Syntagms Syntagmatic approach to contrasting What’s the difference ?

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slide2
The elements of language juxtaposed for contrasting may be viewed as:
  • Paradigms  Paradigmatic approach to contrasting
  • Syntagms Syntagmatic approach to contrasting
  • What’s the difference ?

“The type of analysis presupposes that language is structured along two axes, a horizontal axis delineating construction types , and a vertical axis defining sets of possible fillers for each position : the syntagmatic and paradigmatic respectively.”

(James: 1980:38)

paradigmatic contrasting
Paradigmatic Contrasting
  • Take an example from James (1980: 38)
  • He gave her a lovely X yesterday.
  • Det + Adj + ?
  • Det + Adj + N
  • N

PRESENT RING

SHAWL

SURPRISE

TIME

SMILE

slide4

Therefore, the paradigmatic approach implies observing the language elements as parts of a system, or a subsystem.

  • Nouns in Serbian can be viewed as elements of language characterized by their number - case paradigm:
slide5
singular

plural

stolicE

stolicA

stolicAMA

stolicE

...

stolicAMA

stolicAMA

  • stolica
  • stolicE
  • stolicI
  • stolicU
  • ...
  • stolicOM
  • stolicI
slide6
singular

plural

girlS

girls’

  • girl
  • girl’s
slide7

An example of paradigmatic comparison : morphological markers of adjective comparison

  • Comparative in E (synthetic and analytic)
    • Positive + ER (youngER)
    • More/less + positive (more beautiful)
  • Superlative in E
    • Positive + est (youngEST)
    • The most/least + positive (the most beautiful)
slide8

Serbian comparison of adjectives (synthetic and analytic):

  • Comparative
    • Positive + ji/iji/ši
    • Više/manje+positive
  • Superlative
    • Naj + comparative
    • Najviše /najmanje + positive
slide9
English

Serbian

Mlađi : najmlađi

Više fer: najviše fer

Lepši: najlepši

pristupačniji: najpristupačniji

Više pogrešan: najviše pogrešan

Manje važan : najmanje važan

  • Younger:the youngest
  • Fairer: the fairest
  • More beautiful: the most beautiful
  • Less accesible : the least accessible
  • More erroneous:the most erroneous
  • Less important: the least important
slide10

It is possible, therefore to establish types of correspondances between the markers of comparison, as :

  • A.absolute correspondances
  • B.contrasts between markers
  • However, paradigmatic comparison does not allow for a more comprehensive and more thourough view of relations between the categories in the two languages:
slide11

What does not show:

  • 1) congruence in S (number, case, gender) does not have a correpondent in E
  • 2) the synthetic comparison is by far more frequent in S than analytic comparison, so the validity of this relation is questioned
  • To resolve these issues, paradigmatic comparison is combined with
syntagmatic contrasting
Syntagmatic Contrasting
  • Syntagm = a construction; a sequence of linguistic units (in this case, words) related by certain syntactic relations
  • The relations established between the syntagmatic sequences can be classified as absolute correspondences, partial correspondencies and zero correspondences
position of adj in e and s
Position of Adj in E and S

E:

S:

Adj + N

Ulični prozor

Dečačka dobacivanja

N + Adj

Za bogove tuđe

U nedrima netaknutim

N + Adj

Generalni sekretar

Ratni sud

N + Adj

Svet nestvaran u tami

Rešenje prihvatljivo za mene

  • Adj + N
  • The front window
  • Boyish passes
  • Adj + N
  • For foreign gods
  • In the untouched breasts
  • N + Adj
  • Secretary General
  • Court Martial
  • N+ Adj
  • The world unreal in the dark
  • A solution acceptable to me
slide14
The question of VALIDATION of results of contrastive analysis
  • Relevant results can only be obtained from the analysis of a large body of data  CORPORA
  • The corpora for PA – dictionaries and grammar books
  • The corpora for SA – text  large electronic data bases (SEU, BNC, LLC, etc)
slide15
Reading:

Đorđević, R. (2002) Uvod u kontrastiranje jezika

James, C. (1980) Contrastive Analysis, pp 61-97