review urban planning from last week l.
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Review—urban planning from last week Chandigarh Assembly Building Chandigarh, rock garden The Vision, some Issues Notion of a “public” space and “green” space run into problems of social access Class issues of “leisure time” and transport

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the vision some issues
The Vision, some Issues
  • Notion of a “public” space and “green” space run into problems of social access
    • Class issues of “leisure time” and transport
  • Some designs not suited to the ecology of the regions in which they are placed
    • Problems with cooling systems/resource use
    • Notions of cultural comfort zones
    • In green spaces, issues of irrigation, imported species and daily care
  • Disregard for the “low-tech” or geographically adapted, but devalued forms of building
green revolution and social change

Green Revolution and Social Change

Indian and Pakistani Punjab, c.1960s-90s

green revolution in s asia
Green Revolution in S. Asia
  • India and Pakistan both welcomed Green-Revolution technology soon after Independence
    • Attempt to reach food security at a time of rapid population growth and food scarcity following independence
  • Major site for each country was the former province of Punjab-due to its historical profile
    • Already had been a site for such governmental agricultural experiments such as the canal colonies
    • Large presence of “peasant” castes and tribes believed to be entrepreneurial
    • Consistent supply of irrigation water and good roads
inputs necessary for g r crops
Inputs necessary for G-R crops
  • Consistent availability of irrigation
  • Nitrogen-heavy chemical fertilizers
  • Soil with good drainage
  • High-yielding varieties of dwarf wheat (from Mexico) and rice (Philippines)
  • Use of machines such as tractors, threshers, electric pumps
  • Bigger farms
punjab v other areas as sites of g r
Punjab v. other areas as sites of G-R
  • In Pakistan, Punjab is the only viable choice due to issues of irrigation/water
  • In India, Punjab is also considered ideal, Bhakra Nangal dam project underway
  • Uttar Pradesh is also seen as viable area
    • Problems of small-size holdings
  • Gujrat emerges as a possible third choice by the 1970s
    • Operation “Flood” or the “white revolution”
government local investment
Government local investment
  • Other than irrigation projects to ensure the needed water supplies, India and Pakistan also invest in the following:
    • New ag. Universities with programs in genetics, crop development
    • Gov. lending schemes to provide money for mechanization, seeds, fertilizers
    • In India renewed interest in Co-operative societies to provide micro-finance and harvest sale, distributions
    • Better roads and storage facilities
initial success
Initial Success
  • At first the pay-off from both projects appeared to be substantial
    • Food grain yields increase by some 48%
    • India and Pakistan become food self-sufficient and even make modest exports by late 1980s
    • Rural and urban incomes in G-R areas climb
    • Per capita caloric intake increases by 20% 1980s-2000s
  • By 1990s yields begin to decrease from averages of 2.7 % to 2%
    • Issues of land quality and fluctuating water supplies
    • Prices of agricultural goods and inputs become unaffordable for many farmers
  • By early 2000s economists and other scholars begin to question the mixed results of G-R changes
roots of problems in indian agriculture
Roots of Problems in Indian Agriculture
  • Small farm size, population pressure on land
    • 50% of farms less than 3 acres (avg. 5 acres)
    • 1/3 of peasants are landless laborers
    • 3/5 of crops are food grains, farmers retain 60-70% for their own use
  • Water table dropping to dangerous levels due to over-tapping of aquifers past re-chargeable levels
  • Rising level of agrarian debts drives out smaller farmers, w/o inputs productivity declines
  • Competition from subsidized industrialized farmers in US,Europe, Latin America
in pakistan similar problems
In Pakistan, similar problems
  • Although the Pakistani gov. under Gen. Ayub, Zulficar Bhutto, and Gen. Musharaf has attempted to break down large farms, larger estates have survived and smaller farms continue to disappear
  • Problems with drought and water supplies
  • Worsening problems with soil alkalization
  • Rural unemployment and underemployment remain large concerns
political structures and g r
Political structures and G-R
  • In both areas, local governments have committed to subsidizing electricity and water
    • Local parties seek agrarian votes in India, good relationships with rural magnates in Pakistan
  • New wealth in both countries associated with new political formations and sometimes with political instability
    • Punjab militancy of 1980s-90s (India); ethnic tensions in Pakistan—Punjab v. Sind
  • Prosperity for the mid-to-top level of farmers obscures worsening debt and income situation of majority of poorer farmers
  • Remains unclear if gains will be sustainable
issues to consider for the future
Issues to Consider for the future:
  • Growing population continues to be an important concern in both countries—land is already under heavy population pressure
  • Water scarcity in both countries growing—
    • aging canals/dams have less capacity due to silt build up
    • S. Indian rivers have less flow
    • Growing drought concerns in Pakistan
    • Ground water scarcity growing in both countries
  • Even if food production can be sustained, affordability and access lead to food insecurity for poor
  • Rising fuel costs a concern even for wealthy farmers