Review urban planning from last week
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Review—urban planning from last week Chandigarh Assembly Building Chandigarh, rock garden The Vision, some Issues Notion of a “public” space and “green” space run into problems of social access Class issues of “leisure time” and transport

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The Vision, some Issues

  • Notion of a “public” space and “green” space run into problems of social access

    • Class issues of “leisure time” and transport

  • Some designs not suited to the ecology of the regions in which they are placed

    • Problems with cooling systems/resource use

    • Notions of cultural comfort zones

    • In green spaces, issues of irrigation, imported species and daily care

  • Disregard for the “low-tech” or geographically adapted, but devalued forms of building


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Green Revolution and Social Change

Indian and Pakistani Punjab, c.1960s-90s


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Green Revolution in S. Asia

  • India and Pakistan both welcomed Green-Revolution technology soon after Independence

    • Attempt to reach food security at a time of rapid population growth and food scarcity following independence

  • Major site for each country was the former province of Punjab-due to its historical profile

    • Already had been a site for such governmental agricultural experiments such as the canal colonies

    • Large presence of “peasant” castes and tribes believed to be entrepreneurial

    • Consistent supply of irrigation water and good roads




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Inputs necessary for G-R crops

  • Consistent availability of irrigation

  • Nitrogen-heavy chemical fertilizers

  • Soil with good drainage

  • High-yielding varieties of dwarf wheat (from Mexico) and rice (Philippines)

  • Use of machines such as tractors, threshers, electric pumps

  • Bigger farms


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Punjab v. other areas as sites of G-R

  • In Pakistan, Punjab is the only viable choice due to issues of irrigation/water

  • In India, Punjab is also considered ideal, Bhakra Nangal dam project underway

  • Uttar Pradesh is also seen as viable area

    • Problems of small-size holdings

  • Gujrat emerges as a possible third choice by the 1970s

    • Operation “Flood” or the “white revolution”


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Government local investment

  • Other than irrigation projects to ensure the needed water supplies, India and Pakistan also invest in the following:

    • New ag. Universities with programs in genetics, crop development

    • Gov. lending schemes to provide money for mechanization, seeds, fertilizers

    • In India renewed interest in Co-operative societies to provide micro-finance and harvest sale, distributions

    • Better roads and storage facilities


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Initial Success

  • At first the pay-off from both projects appeared to be substantial

    • Food grain yields increase by some 48%

    • India and Pakistan become food self-sufficient and even make modest exports by late 1980s

    • Rural and urban incomes in G-R areas climb

    • Per capita caloric intake increases by 20% 1980s-2000s

  • By 1990s yields begin to decrease from averages of 2.7 % to 2%

    • Issues of land quality and fluctuating water supplies

    • Prices of agricultural goods and inputs become unaffordable for many farmers

  • By early 2000s economists and other scholars begin to question the mixed results of G-R changes


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Roots of Problems in Indian Agriculture

  • Small farm size, population pressure on land

    • 50% of farms less than 3 acres (avg. 5 acres)

    • 1/3 of peasants are landless laborers

    • 3/5 of crops are food grains, farmers retain 60-70% for their own use

  • Water table dropping to dangerous levels due to over-tapping of aquifers past re-chargeable levels

  • Rising level of agrarian debts drives out smaller farmers, w/o inputs productivity declines

  • Competition from subsidized industrialized farmers in US,Europe, Latin America


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In Pakistan, similar problems

  • Although the Pakistani gov. under Gen. Ayub, Zulficar Bhutto, and Gen. Musharaf has attempted to break down large farms, larger estates have survived and smaller farms continue to disappear

  • Problems with drought and water supplies

  • Worsening problems with soil alkalization

  • Rural unemployment and underemployment remain large concerns



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Political structures and G-R

  • In both areas, local governments have committed to subsidizing electricity and water

    • Local parties seek agrarian votes in India, good relationships with rural magnates in Pakistan

  • New wealth in both countries associated with new political formations and sometimes with political instability

    • Punjab militancy of 1980s-90s (India); ethnic tensions in Pakistan—Punjab v. Sind

  • Prosperity for the mid-to-top level of farmers obscures worsening debt and income situation of majority of poorer farmers

  • Remains unclear if gains will be sustainable


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Issues to Consider for the future:

  • Growing population continues to be an important concern in both countries—land is already under heavy population pressure

  • Water scarcity in both countries growing—

    • aging canals/dams have less capacity due to silt build up

    • S. Indian rivers have less flow

    • Growing drought concerns in Pakistan

    • Ground water scarcity growing in both countries

  • Even if food production can be sustained, affordability and access lead to food insecurity for poor

  • Rising fuel costs a concern even for wealthy farmers


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