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Mapping worldwide environmental and health inequalities. Anna Barford University of Sheffield. with Danny Dorling, Mark Newman, John Pritchard, Graham Allsopp and Ben Wheeler. Cholera deaths.

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Mapping worldwide environmental and health inequalities

Mapping worldwide environmental and health inequalities

Anna Barford

University of Sheffield

with Danny Dorling, Mark Newman, John Pritchard, Graham Allsopp and Ben Wheeler


Cholera deaths
Cholera deaths

Territory size shows the proportion of worldwide deaths from cholera that occurred there, in 2004 or most recent.


Maps of inequality
Maps of inequality

  • Inequality is “Social disparity; the fact of occupying a more or a less advantageous position.” (OED, 2006)

  • Quick comparison between places

  • Position = social and geographical


“… our own privileges are located on the same map as their suffering, and may – in many ways we might prefer not to imagine – be linked to their suffering, as the wealth of some may imply the destitution of others …”

Susan Sontag (2003, p.92)


Worldmapper project
Worldmapper project their suffering, and may – in many ways we might prefer not to imagine – be linked to their suffering, as the wealth of some may imply the destitution of others …”

  • 366 cartograms

  • Social, economic, and health data

  • Universities of Sheffield (U.K.) & Michigan (U.S.A.)

  • Free online: www.worldmapper.org


Map reading
Map reading their suffering, and may – in many ways we might prefer not to imagine – be linked to their suffering, as the wealth of some may imply the destitution of others …”

  • Colours for identification

  • Total land area is constant

  • Ocean area is constant

  • Read like a pie chart

  • Cannot map rates or negative values

  • Need data for every country (from UN)


Connections
Connections their suffering, and may – in many ways we might prefer not to imagine – be linked to their suffering, as the wealth of some may imply the destitution of others …”

  • Health and pollution are linked

    • together (water pollution)

    • to other inequalities (wealth)

  • Pollution maps show half the story

  • Inequalities have a geography

  • How are people connected?


Water pollution and health
Water pollution and health their suffering, and may – in many ways we might prefer not to imagine – be linked to their suffering, as the wealth of some may imply the destitution of others …”


Poor sanitation
Poor Sanitation their suffering, and may – in many ways we might prefer not to imagine – be linked to their suffering, as the wealth of some may imply the destitution of others …”

Territory size shows the proportion of all people without access to basic sanitation (toilets) that live there.


Poor water
Poor Water their suffering, and may – in many ways we might prefer not to imagine – be linked to their suffering, as the wealth of some may imply the destitution of others …”

Territory size shows the proportion of all people without reliable access to safe water that live there.


Barbara frost ceo of wateraid

“Ask most poor people in the developing world what they need to escape a life of poverty and disease and top of their list will be clean water. Combine this with somewhere safe to go to the toilet and awareness of good hygiene practices and you have the foundation of all other development.”

Barbara Frost, CEO of WaterAid


Childhood diarrhoea
Childhood Diarrhoea need to escape a life of poverty and disease and top of their list will be clean water. Combine this with somewhere safe to go to the toilet and awareness of good hygiene practices and you have the foundation of all other development.”

Territory size shows the proportion of worldwide cases of diarrhoea found in children aged 0-4 living there.


“Cholera is spread by contaminated water and food. Sudden large outbreaks are usually caused by a contaminated water supply.”

World Health Organisation, 2000


Cholera cases
Cholera Cases large outbreaks are usually caused by a contaminated water supply.”

Territory size shows the proportion of all cholera cases that were found there, in 2004 or in the most recent year with data available.


World health organisation 2000

“When cholera occurs in an unprepared community, case-fatality rates may be as high as 50% … a well established diarrhoeal disease control programme can limit the case-fatality rate to less than 1%.”

World Health Organisation, 2000


Public health spending
Public Health Spending case-fatality rates may be as high as 50% … a well established diarrhoeal disease control programme can limit the case-fatality rate to less than 1%.”

Territory size shows the proportion of spending on public health services that is spent there. Measured in purchasing power parity.


Net medicine exports
Net Medicine Exports case-fatality rates may be as high as 50% … a well established diarrhoeal disease control programme can limit the case-fatality rate to less than 1%.”

Territory size shows the proportion of net exports of medicine (in US$) that come from there. Net exports are exports minus imports.


Other relevant maps

Health care workers case-fatality rates may be as high as 50% … a well established diarrhoeal disease control programme can limit the case-fatality rate to less than 1%.”

Hospital beds

Electricity supply

Roads

Under-nourishment

Other relevant maps …


Nitrous oxide emissions
Nitrous Oxide Emissions case-fatality rates may be as high as 50% … a well established diarrhoeal disease control programme can limit the case-fatality rate to less than 1%.”


More on nitrous oxides
More on nitrous oxides case-fatality rates may be as high as 50% … a well established diarrhoeal disease control programme can limit the case-fatality rate to less than 1%.”

  • Nitric Oxide from combustion e.g. vehicle fumes

  • Nitric Oxide oxidises to Nitrogen Dioxide

  • Nitrogen Dioxide irritates lungs, lowers resistance to respiratory infections

  • High exposure may increase acute respiratory illness in children

    (Source: UK Air Quality Archive, 2007)


Hazardous Waste case-fatality rates may be as high as 50% … a well established diarrhoeal disease control programme can limit the case-fatality rate to less than 1%.”(flammable, oxidising, infectious, radioactive, poisonous, ecotoxic (poisonous to plants/animals), or corrosive waste)


Movement of hazardous waste to abidjan
Movement of Hazardous Waste to Abidjan case-fatality rates may be as high as 50% … a well established diarrhoeal disease control programme can limit the case-fatality rate to less than 1%.”

Probo Koala sails under Panamanian flag.

Registered owner is Celtic Legend Shipping Inc. of Norway.

Manager & operator is Prime Marine Management of Greece. (Greenpeace)

3 dead; 3000 sought health care (intestinal and

respiratory problems, nose bleeds, nausea and vomiting).(Relief Web, 07.09.06)

Source: BBC News


Nuclear waste
Nuclear Waste case-fatality rates may be as high as 50% … a well established diarrhoeal disease control programme can limit the case-fatality rate to less than 1%.”


Our nuclear waste
Our Nuclear Waste case-fatality rates may be as high as 50% … a well established diarrhoeal disease control programme can limit the case-fatality rate to less than 1%.”

“we have a 50-year history in this country of not finding any long-term management option for very high-level, relatively dangerous radioactive waste.”

Gordon McKerron, Committee on Radioactive Waste Management

Source: BBC News, from NIREX


Greenhouse gases
Greenhouse Gases case-fatality rates may be as high as 50% … a well established diarrhoeal disease control programme can limit the case-fatality rate to less than 1%.”


Greenhouse gases1
Greenhouse Gases case-fatality rates may be as high as 50% … a well established diarrhoeal disease control programme can limit the case-fatality rate to less than 1%.”

  • Distribution of greenhouse gas emission is likely to differ from distribution of effects

  • Places emit different greenhouse gases:

    Methane Carbon Dioxide


Www worldmapper org
www.worldmapper.org case-fatality rates may be as high as 50% … a well established diarrhoeal disease control programme can limit the case-fatality rate to less than 1%.”


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