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Management Information Systems: Classic Models and New Approaches Chapter 17 Objectives List and describe the classic functions of managers – planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling Describe the purpose and components of a management information system (MIS)

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objectives
Objectives
  • List and describe the classic functions of managers – planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling
  • Describe the purpose and components of a management information system (MIS)
  • Explain how computer networking and related software have flattened the classic management pyramid
objectives3
Objectives
  • Describe how many companies use employees in task-oriented teams
  • Describe the purpose and function of sophisticated software for top managers
  • Explain the problems and solutions related to managing personal computers
  • Explain the concept of total cost of personal computer ownership
contents
Contents
  • Management Functions
  • Management Levels
  • Information Systems
  • Personal Computer Management
  • MIS Leads into the Future
management functions
Get the job done

On time

Within budget

Satisfactorily

Using available resources

Planning

Devise short-range and long-range plans and set goals to help achieve the plans

Organizing

How to use resources

Staffing

Directing

Guiding employees to perform their work

Controlling

Monitoring progress towards goals

Management Functions
management levels
Management Levels
  • High level (strategic)
    • Long-range view
    • Planning
  • Middle level (tactical)
    • Carry out the plan
      • Assemble the material
      • Hire the resources
    • Organize and staff
  • Low level (operational)
    • Supervisor
    • Directing and controlling
management levels7
Management Levels
  • Job titles
    • Chief information officer (CIO)
    • Director of information services
    • Information resource manager
    • MIS manager
  • Comfortable with
    • Computer technology
    • Organization’s business
management levels interaction among employees
Management LevelsInteraction Among Employees

Traditional hierarchy

  • High level manager issues directives to a group of middle level managers
  • Each middle level manager issues directives to a group of low level managers
  • Each low level manager supervises other employees to see that the work is completed
management levels interaction among employees9
Management LevelsInteraction Among Employees

Modern Hierarchy

  • Dispersion of information via network
    • E-mail
    • Groupware
  • Authority and work of managers has been altered
  • Promotes sharing of information
  • Decisions that were once management are now open for comment and change
  • Supports team-based and information-driven organization
management levels interaction among employees10
Management LevelsInteraction Among Employees

Need new ways to monitor employees

  • Selection and training of employees
  • Set clear expectations
  • Use customer satisfaction to determine performance
management levels11
Management Levels

Flattening the pyramid

information systems
Information Systems

MIS Management Information System

DSS Decision Support Systems

EIS Executive Information Systems

mis management information system
MISManagement Information System
  • Data + Organization
  • Set of formal business systems designed to provide information for an organization
  • Computers are typical components
dss decision support systems
DSSDecision Support Systems
  • Supplements an MIS
  • Pulls information from variety of databases
  • Interactive
  • Nonroutine decision-making
  • Model – mathematical representation of real-life system
  • Simulation – using a computer model to reach a decision about a real-life situation
mis vs dss
MIS vs. DSS
  • MIS
    • Planned reporting
    • Standard, scheduled, structured, and routine
    • Constrained by the organizational system
  • DSS
    • Decision making
    • Unstructured and by request
    • Immediate and friendly
eis executive information systems
EISExecutive Information Systems
  • DSS for top-level managers
  • How decisions effect entire organization
    • Overall vision; company goals
    • Long-term objectives
    • Organizational structure
    • Staffing and labor relations
    • Crisis management
    • Control of overall operations
  • Access to information from external sources
personal computers management
Personal ComputersManagement
  • Benefits
    • Increased productivity
    • Independence from MIS department
  • Problems
    • No one in charge of overall purchase of PCs
    • Incompatibility
    • Network related issues
    • Needed data from MIS
    • Training
    • Inventory
personal computers management18
Personal ComputersManagement

Solutions

  • Staffing
    • Personal Computer Manager
    • Network Manager
  • Acquisitions policies
  • Information centers for assistance and training
  • Use software to control inventory of PCs
  • Remote access
  • Consider total cost of ownership (TCO)
personal computers management19
Personal ComputersManagement
  • Personal Computer Manager
    • Technology overload – provide guidance to users for purchase and use
    • Data security and integrity – addresses the issues of who has access to what
    • Computer junkies – set guidelines for PC use
  • Network Manager
    • Operational
    • Provide methods for sharing
    • Install software
    • Backup
    • Network security
personal computers management20
Personal ComputersManagement

Manager Characteristics

  • MIS background
  • Technical knowledge
  • Benefits and limitations of computers
personal computers acquisition
Personal ComputersAcquisition
  • Standards
    • Hardware
    • Software
    • Data communications
  • Limit the number of vendors
personal computers information center
Personal ComputersInformation Center
  • Services
    • Software and hardware selection
    • Data access
    • Network access
    • Training
    • Technical assistance
  • Easily accessible location
  • “User comes first”
personal computers training
Personal Computers Training

Traditional approach

  • Sporadic participation
  • Minimal results for extended training

Better approach

  • Initial training
  • Home-grown gurus
  • Follow-up support
  • Involve the workers
  • Web and CD based training
personal computers inventory
Personal ComputersInventory
  • Budgets
  • Software
    • Count computers
    • Determines components
    • Determine installed software
personal computers remote access
Personal ComputersRemote Access
  • Equipment needs
  • Security concern
  • Training
tco total cost of ownership
TCOTotal Cost of Ownership
  • Initial hardware and software
  • Training
  • Support
  • Upgrading
  • Maintenance
  • Hardware
  • Software extras
  • Communications networks

TCO estimated at

four times

the hardware costs!

tco reduce the tco
TCOReduce the TCO
  • Limited Options – standardize the ordering process including hardware, software, and options
  • Helpful software – counts computers and determines their components and installed software in a networked environment
  • Hardware and software upgrades – insure there is justification for an upgrade
management information systems
Management InformationSystems

Leading Business into the Future