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Introduction to the Course Justin Champion Room C208 - Tel: 3273 www.staffs.ac.uk/personel/engineering_and_technology/jjc1 Introduction to the course Contents What are we looking at History Digital to analogue Mobile technology Breakdown of the course Assements

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introduction to the course

Introduction to the Course

Justin Champion

Room C208 - Tel: 3273

www.staffs.ac.uk/personel/engineering_and_technology/jjc1

introduction to the course2
Introduction to the course
  • Contents
    • What are we looking at
    • History
      • Digital to analogue
    • Mobile technology
      • Breakdown of the course
      • Assements
introduction to the course3
Introduction to the course
  • What we are looking at
    • Mobile devices using cellular communications
    • Looking at how they work
    • Uses of this technology
    • We are not considering
      • Mobile voice technology
      • Wireless Technology
        • Wi-Fi
        • Bluetooth
        • These do not support any roaming
introduction to the course4

Digital

Multimedia

Analogue

1990’s

1980’s

2000 +

Introduction to the course
  • Evolution of Personal Communication System’s
introduction to the course5
Introduction to the course
  • History
    • 1876 Graham bell creates the phone
    • 1878 First exchange in Connecticut, USA.
      • Gradual spread
        • Analogue Publicly Switched Telephone Network
          • Used throughout the world
    • 1979
      • (ISDN) Digital Communications started on the PSTN
    • 1985 Mobile phones start in the UK
    • 1993 ADSL introduced
    • 2001 GPRS service started
    • 2004 EDGE predicted to start
    • 200? 3G service starting
      • This is ongoing if ever to happen as discussed in lectures
introduction to the course6
Introduction to the course
  • History of the phone
    • Created by Graham Bell in 1875
    • He created what we know as a microphone
    • In 1876 the patent for a telephone was submitted
    • 1878 first telephone exchange was created
      • In New Haven, Connecticut, USA
introduction to the course7
Introduction to the course
  • Publicly Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)
    • Also know as Plain Old Telephone System (POTS)
    • This is the telephone network we all use every day
      • Wired
      • Controlled by British Telecom in the UK
      • Parts of the network are Analogue
        • Increasingly using Digital Communications
        • Last mile is still analogue today!
introduction to the course8
Introduction to the course
  • Communicating
    • To allow communication a circuit must be completed between two phone devices
    • This circuit will then allow the analogue signals to travel between them
      • Voice in the early days
introduction to the course9
Introduction to the course
  • Switching
    • The first automated exchange was created in 1889
    • Almon Strowger a undertaker created this exchange
      • He was annoyed that a opposition undertaker who’s wife worked in the exchange was getting all the burial work
introduction to the course analogue
Introduction to the course - Analogue
  • Analogue problems
    • Further the signal travels the weaker it gets
    • A clear signal will degrade
      • Loss power
      • Also gain interference

Strength

Time / Distance

introduction to the course digital

+5v

1

0

-5v

Introduction to the course - Digital
  • Digital Communications
    • Allows accurate sending of signals
    • The signal still degrades
    • It is possible though to still get a signal back even with loss

1100101110010

1100101110010

introduction to the course digital13
Introduction to the course - Digital
  • Analogue to Digital Conversion (ADC)
    • Regular samples are taken from the signal
      • Each given a value depending on the number of bits
        • Example shown uses 8 bits

127

-127

introduction to the course digital14
Introduction to the course - Digital
  • Analogue to Digital Conversion (ADC)
    • Regular samples are taken from the signal
      • Each given a value depending on the number of bits
        • Example shown uses 8 bits storing values between 127 & -127

127

-127

introduction to the course15
Introduction to the course
  • Sampling Rate
    • Needs to be sufficient to gain all of the analogue signal
      • If it is not a lot of the signal is lost as in the example shown in the previous example
      • Nyquist’s law tells us the minimum sampling rate
        • Sampling Rate = Highest Frequency * 2
    • Telephones use
      • 3.4 KHz sampling rate for voice calls
      • 8 KHz for digital calls
      • 1 KHz = 1000 cycles a second
introduction to the course16
Introduction to the course
  • PSTN Modular
    • The PSTN is a modular design
    • New parts can be added to the network as required
      • Mobile communications
      • Satellite Communications
    • SS7 allows this as discussed in a future week
introduction to the course17
Introduction to the course
  • Mobile Communications
    • Started with Mobile phones
      • Which were voice only
      • Limited battery life
      • Limited roaming capability
      • Limited quality
      • Unsecured
    • Advent of Digital phones
      • Allowed for better use of this phone technology
      • Allowed the user to roam and receive calls anywhere
      • Call were encrypted
      • The use of digital communications also allowed for data calls
introduction to the course18
Introduction to the course
  • Roaming capability
    • Brought forward technology
      • Dual/Tri Band phones
      • Satellite phones
        • Expensive about £1.20 a minute for a world phone call
    • This allowed the user to move from the office/home environment and still be connected.
    • Laptops
      • As computers got smaller it was now possible to carry it with you
      • As the computer is available the data was required for it
introduction to the course19
Introduction to the course
  • Data Use
    • GSM phones allowed 9.6 Kbps data communications
      • Enough for email and simple file transfers
    • SMS messaging is the most popular data use
    • Voice calls are coming to the peak of the popularity
      • Additional avenues of revenue are required
      • Increased data is a obvious choice
      • Charge the user for the packet received
      • Charge for the services they are accessing
      • i.e. Football results service
introduction to the course20
Introduction to the course
  • Personal Communication Services (PCS)
    • We will soon have the ability for anyone to access digital information like the Internet.
      • Unlike the Internet, there will be value added service from day one
        • Video on Demand
        • Paying your credit card bill
        • Ordering services
      • Value added services will be the primary goal of the PCS
        • This will be needed to pay for the infrastructure and licenses paid for
    • Each user will be able to view the information as they want it
      • Central control will not be put upon on the users
      • Differing levels of hardware capability will effect the end presentation
introduction to the course21
Introduction to the course
  • Weekly Breakdown
    • 1 – This lecture
    • 2 – 1G & 2G technology
    • 3 – Device Technology
    • 4 – General Packet Radio Service
    • 5 – Enhanced Data GSM Environment
    • 6 – Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS)
    • 7 – CDMA 2000
    • 8 – I-Mode and WAP
    • 9 – 2G and 3G Handover methods
    • 10 – PCS
    • 11 – 4G, the future
introduction to the course22
Introduction to the course
  • Assessment
    • Assignment 50%
      • This will be one piece of written work of about 4000 words
      • This work will need independent research by the student to discuss the topic of WCDMA
    • Examination 50%
      • This will be a formal examination during the faculties exam period
    • Weighting
      • The weighting of each part will be evenly split
introduction to the course23
Introduction to the course
  • Summary
    • What is the Personal Communication System
    • What we will cover
    • What the assessment will be