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Internationalization & Localization : Indian Perspective and requirements By : Swaran Lata Country Manager,W3C India Office 6,CGO complex, Electronics Niketan New Delhi E-mail : slata@mit.gov.in Internationalization and localization are subsets of globalization Localization

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Internationalization & Localization : Indian Perspective and requirements

By :

Swaran Lata

Country Manager,W3C India Office6,CGO complex, Electronics NiketanNew DelhiE-mail : slata@mit.gov.in


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Internationalization and localization are subsets of globalization

Localization

Taking a product and making it linguistically and culturally appropriate to the target locale (country/ region and language) where it will be used and sold"

Process of generalizing a product so that it can handle multiple languages and cultural conventions without the need for re-design.

Internationalization


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Localization Vs Internationalized globalization

  • Designing and developing in a way that removes barriers to localization or international deployment.

  • Providing support for features that may not be used until localization occurs.

  • Enabling code to support local, regional, language, or culturally related preferences.

  • Separating localizable elements from source code or content, such that localized alternatives can be loaded or selected based on the user's international preferences as needed.

  • It can be localized quickly.


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The Internationalization Approach globalizationto Globalization

Gather Information Globally

Enabling :

the same code supports multiple regions or cultures

Externalize :

makes localization for specific languages, regions

Customize :

add culturally specific functionality, presentation, or content to an application.

Test and Support globally

Localize


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Internationalized application to be Localized globalization

Localized Application


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Complexity of Indian Scenario globalization

  • India is Multilingual Multi script Country with 22 languages and 11 scripts; population over 1 Billion

  • Less than 5 percent of people can read & write English. Over 95 percent population is deprived of the benefits of English-based Information Technology

    Issues regarding Indian Languages

    • Orthography – Spelling issues

    • Pronunciation – may be directly mapped but not always

    • One script-many languages

    • Many languages – one Script


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Quality Assurance globalization

Language Technologies

  • Testing methodologies

  • Metrics for Linguistic Testing

  • Certification by Government for

  • linguistic compliance

  • Machine Translation

  • Optical Character Recognition

  • Speech Technologies

  • Cross Lingual Information Retrieval

Training

  • Certified Localization professionals

  • PG Specialization in Localization

  • PhD Programmes

Locale Data

  • Presentation of dates, times, numbers, lists, and other values.

  • Collation and sorting

  • Alternate calendars, which may include holidays, work rules, weekday/weekend.

  • Currency

  • Tax or regulatory regime

Standards

  • Encoding Standards

  • Multimodal input device standards

  • Fonts & Rendering Engines

  • Transliteration & Translation

Education & Outreach

  • Guidelines

  • Best Practices

  • Case Studies

  • Consultancy

  • Showcasing of Tools

  • & Technologies

Localization Tools

  • Project Management

  • Translation Memory

  • Translation Tools

  • Natural language for text processing: parsing, spell checking, and grammar checking etc

  • Automatic Testing Tools

Linguistic resources

  • Parallel Corpora

  • Speech Corpora

  • Lexical resources

  • Ontologies

  • Dictionaries

  • Thesaurus

  • Reference Terminologies

Shipping issues

  • Minimizing Time lag

  • Benchmarking w.r.t. English version

  • Political sensitivity

  • Pricing issues

The Tree of Localization Complexities


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Internationalization Activity in W3c globalization

  • The W3C Internationalization (I18n) Activity works with W3C working groups to make it possible to use Web technologies with different languages, scripts, and cultures.

  • It is to ensure that W3C's formats and protocols are usable worldwide in all languages and in all writing systems.

  • The Internationalization (I18n) Activity statement explains concepts relating to internationalization, as well as the current situation and the role within the W3C of the Internationalization Activity.


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W3C Internationalization Resources globalization

  • Internationalization of Web design & Applications

    • Character Model for World Wide Web

    • Authoring Techniques for XHTML & HTML

    • Authoring CSS

    • Unicode in XML

  • Internationalization of Web Architecture

    • Language tags and Local Identifiers

    • Internationalization Tag Set

  • Internationalization of XML

    • Best practices for XML Internationalization

  • Internationalization of Web Services

    • Language tags and Local Identifiers for World Wide Web


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    Activities to be undertaken by W3C India Office globalization

    • Internationalization

      • Internationalization Tag Set

    • Web Design and Applications

      • Styling

      • Html

      • Xhtml

      • Wai

    • Web Architecture

      • XML

    • Semantic Web

      • OWL and RDF

    • XML Technology

      • XML associated standards

    • Web of Services

      • SOA

    • Web of Devices

      • Mobile Web Initiative

      • Voice

    • E-Government

      • Use cases

    Web Architecture

    Web Design & Applications

    Semantic Web

    Internationalization

    XML

    E-Government

    Web of Devices

    Web of Services


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    MOBILE WEB globalization

    Challenges :

    • Adopting right encoding scheme

    • Availability on handsets

    • Usability of Mobile Web Browser

    • Web support of all Indian languages

    • Study on specific requirements for Indian languages for W3C Mobile Web Best Practices

    • Must support standards and specifications

    • Access to all handset features


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    MOBILE WEB globalization

    • Issues on Mobile Web

    • Character Encoding

    • Bandwidth and Cost

    • Presentation Issues

    • Input

    • Device Limitations

    • Lack of standardization

    • Fonts

    • Backward Compatibility

    • with Legacy Devices

    • Lack of standardization

    • Rendering Issues

    • Messaging Issues

    • Lack of availability for all characters.

    • There is no guarantee that a message encoded will be displayed properly at the receiving terminal.

    • Issue of Multiple Script -one language not addressed.

    • Standardization of glyph support, syllable composition logic is also an important aspect and is dependent on the implementation level of handset manufacturer.

    • Legacy Systems


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    MOBILE WEB globalization

    • Issues in Mobile Keypads

    • Multi-tap issues

      • Too many taps per key for each char No way to know which char is on which Key

    • Dictionary Based issues

      • Difficult to learn and operate for the target segments.

      • Different spelling for मुर्ती ,मुरती, मूर्ति even मुरथी, many permutations. Which is the one to be mapped


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    MOBILE WEB globalization

    • Suggestions

    • In terms of internationalization, operators must support appropriate character encoding on the signaling channel which would allow all characters of the world to be represented.

    • Need of investigation and study of major issues for enabling Mobile web in Indian languages

    • Standardization of mobile media also required to be addressed taking into consideration of specific requirements of each of Indic languages.

    • Road Map :

      • Character encoding as per Unicode Standard

      • Enable Mobile Web in Indian languages

      • Initiation of study for Mobile Web Best Practices 1.0 with respect to

      • requirements for 4 Indian languages : Hindi, Bangla , Marathi, Tamil


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    PRONUNCIATION LEXICON SPECIFICATION globalization

    Issues :

    Roadmap :

    Initiation of study for PLS 1.0 with respect to requirements for 3 Indian languages : Hindi and Bangla, Tamil


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    Cascading Style Sheet globalization

    Issues : :

    • Drop Letter in Indian languages

      • Issues for Indian Languages with respect to first character used in Hindi, Malayalam, Bengali, Telugu and Gujarati etc


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    Cascading Style Sheet globalization

    • Underlining of characters

      • There is some examples of Indian languages in which Matra’s are not readable due to underlining of characters


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    Cascading Style Sheet globalization

    • Vertical arrangements

    • Formatting issues :

      • Horizontal justification

    • Bullets and Numbering


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    Cascading Style Sheet globalization

    • Indentation of character

    • Challenges :

    • Implementation of CSS standards developed by W3C regarding Indian languages

    • Standards however need to be provided to those developing CSS so that by default user could have the facility to use bulleting in his own Indic languages.

    Roadmap :

    Initiation of study for CSS 2.0 specifications with respect to requirements for 5 Indian languages : Hindi, Bangla , Punjabi , Kannada , Tamil


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    E-Government globalization

    • Issues :

    • Some applications are Completely in English.

    • Some applications have static content in local language but forms in

    • English.

    • Some applications are multi-lingual but only in limited languages (e.g.,

    • English and only one local language) .

    • Use cases :

      Use Case for Land Records

    • As all type of data related to land, available in these land records

    • They are used for various planning processes although the manual maintenance of this land record does hinder in effective collation and analysis of the data contained in them.


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    E-Government globalization

    • Challenges :

    • To enable e-governance applications in Indian languages.

    • Compliance with W3C standards.

    • Roadmap :

    • Major E-Gov Application in Indian languages need to be studied for

      improving access to Government through better use of the web.

      • Target languages : Hindi, Bangla, Marathi ,Telugu, Tamil


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    Common Locale Data Repository globalization

    Screen shots of CLDR Updation :

    • CLDR HINDI


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    Common Locale Data Repository globalization

    • Some of the Screen shots of CLDR Updation :

      CLDR Bengali


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    Common Locale Data Repository globalization

    • Some of the Screen shots of CLDR Updation :

    • CLDR Malayalam CLDR Assamese


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    Common Locale Data Repository globalization

    • DRAFT LOCALE DATA for HINDI :


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    Common Locale Data Repository globalization

    • Draft locale data for Bengali :


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    Common Locale Data Repository globalization

    • Draft locale data for Assamese :


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    Common Locale Data Repository globalization

    • Draft locale data for Malayalam :


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    WEB ACCESSIBILITY INITIATIVE globalization

    • Initiative in India :

      • “Guidelines for Indian Government websites” by NIC , Govt. of India

    • STQC Implementing WCAG 2.0 Accessibility through Website Quality Certification

    • Centre for Internet and Society developing authorized translation of WCAG 2.0 Guidelines

    Challenges :

    • Make Web content accessible to people with disabilities w.r.t Indian languages

  • WCAG 2.0 Guidelines for success criteria vis-a-vis selected recommendations relevant to Indian context

    • Roadmap :

    • Meet WCAG 2.0 guidelines & techniques w.r.t Indian languages

    • Initiation with Hindi, Bangla, Marathi, Telugu, Tamil


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    Internet Domain Names (IDN’s) globalization

    • Issues

    • Spoofing issues- Homographs

      • Characters looks similar in address bar

        eg. 1. क &फ

        कमल फमल

      • No two scripts should get mixed

      • Normal generic rules have to be there with some added restrictions as per language demands are required

    • Spelling Variants

      eg.


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    • Browsers related Issues globalization

      • No backward compatibility

      • Conversion from Unicode to Punycode is available in IE7 and onwards

      • Firefox directly converts Unicode to Punycode

      • Some rendering issues in different browsers for different Indian languages

  • Vertical conjuncts

  • DN Draft policy for Indian Language



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    Script Grammar globalization

    Language experts from state government examined the Script Grammar of Bangla , Marathi, Gujarati, Konkani and Maithili. Some of the screen shots are shown below:

    Script Grammar – Bangla


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    Script Grammar globalization

    Script Grammar – Gujarati


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    Script Grammar globalization

    Script Grammar – Marathi


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    Challenges globalization

    • Multiplicity of Languages

    • Evolution of Orthography

    • Lack of Standardization

    • Enabling Mobile web in Indian languages

    • Initiation of study for a W3C recommendations with respect to requirements for Indian languages

    • Adoption of W3C standards in terms of Internationalization

    • Indian Websites should be fully W3C Complaint

    • E-Gov Application in Indian languages need to be studied for better use of the web.


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    Integrated challenges for W3C India Office globalization

    • Language Tag

      • Initiative in vetting / modification / developing Language Tags in all 22 official Indian languages as well as regional dialectical variation of Indian languages.

  • CLDR

    • Six Languages in CLDR Hindi , Nepali, Bengali , Assamese, Malayalam and Gujarati are finalized. Other languages are in process

      .

  • Revised Inscript Keyboard Layout – Enhanced to incorporate additional characters as per Unicode 5.1. C-DAC, IBM, Microsoft & Redhat involved in this initiative.


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    Thank You globalization