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Genetic basis for evolution Part I DNA model Describe the history of the early discoveries of DNA. A) Friedrich Meischer in 1869 isolated DNA from fish sperm and the pus of open wounds.

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describe the history of the early discoveries of dna
Describe the history of the early discoveries of DNA.
  • A) Friedrich Meischer in 1869 isolated DNA from fish sperm and the pus of open wounds.
  • Since it came from nuclei, Meischer named this new chemical, nuclein. Subsequently the name was changed to nucleic acid.
1 early history con t
1. Early History con’t
  • Now called deoxyribonucleic acid.
  • b) Robert Feulgen, in 1914, discovered that fuchsin dye stained DNA.
  • DNA was then found in the nucleus of all eukaryotic cells.
1 early history con t4
1. Early history con’t
  • c) P.A. Levene 1920 analyzed the components of the DNA molecule. He found it contained four nitrogenous bases: cytosine, thymine, guanine and adenine and a phosphate group.
  • Basic unit (Nucleotide) was composed of a base attached to a sugar and that the phosphate also attached to the sugar.
2 describe the discovery of the dna model
2. Describe the discovery of the DNA model.
  • Watson and Crick gathered all available data in an attempt to develop a model of DNA structure.
2 discovery of dna 3 d shape
2. Discovery of DNA 3 D shape
  • Used Rosaline Franklin’s x-ray diffraction photomicrographs of crystalline DNA extract, the key to the puzzle.
  • Watson and Crick got all the credit (male scientists vs female).
3 what is a nucleotide what components are in nucleotides what function
3. What is a nucleotide? What components are in nucleotides & what function?
  • nucleotides  The subunits of nucleic acids ( DNA & RNA) composed of a phosphate, a sugar, and a nitrogen-containing base. DNA made of nucleotides
  • DNA Bases: Adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine.
  • RNA Bases: Adenine, guanine, cytosine and urasil
  • Paired bases: A….T and C….G always
  • Some nucleotides are involved in information storage (as nucleotides in DNA), protein synthesis (as nucleotides in RNA), and energy transfers (as single nucleotide ATP)
4 draw a nucleotide
4. Draw a Nucleotide

Basic unit

P…….A

S

Link to additional nucleotides

5 draw a dna molecule
5. Draw a DNA molecule

P……A --- T………P

S S

P……G--- C………P

S S

P……C --- G……..P

S S

P…….T --- A……. P

S S

Key

P = phosphate

S = sugar (deoxyribose

A = adenine base

T = thymine base

G = guanine base

C = cytosine base

6 what is a codon and why is it important
6. What is a codon and why is it important?

Important in protein synthesis and replication of DNA

  • 1. DNA nucleotide bases arranged in triplets of 3 bases, code for amino acids which are the base for proteins.

Ex: GGC TCA CCC GGG TTA ACC

7 how does dna function in evolution
7. How does DNA function in evolution?

DNA codes for proteins used in all cell functions.

  • Proteins can be structural – muscle
  • Enzymes – controlling all biochemical reactions
  • Hormones – control body functions
7 proteins evolution con t
7. Proteins & evolution con’t
  • All variation in traits based on differences in protein structures or biochemical pathways controlled by enzymes
  • Gene based traits selected for by environment.

*White coat vs brown (biochemical, enzyme)

*run faster (muscles & biochemical)

*larger body size (structural proteins)

* adapted to high temperature (enzymes)

*more aggressive – increase testosterone (hormones)

8 describe process of protein synthesis
8. Describe process of protein synthesis.
  • Step 1: DNA contains message in codons
  • Step 2: Transcription – DNA code given to RNA messenger.
  • Step 3: RNA copies DNA message and carries out of nucleus to Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • Step 4: Translation -RNA joins up with transfer RNA which carries protein subunits called Amino Acids. Translates code from DNA. Occurs in ribosomes attached to endoplasmic reticulum.
  • Step 5: Amino Acid subunits combined into proteins in cytoplasm.
8 describe process of protein synthesis16
8. Describe process of protein synthesis.
  • DNA……mRNA…..tRNA….protein
      • Transcription translation
photos refs
Photos & refs
  • http://www.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookDNAMOLGEN.html